2Focus QuestionDescribe 2 events that lead to European Monarchs having Absolute power.
3Social Upheaval in Europe Between 1560 and 1650 Europe suffered economic and social crises as well as political upheaval. In addition to the religious turmoil and wars, other factors contributed.Economy began to retract.Italy, which had been an economic hot-bed of trade during the renaissance period was eclipsed by Atlantic powers.Spain’s fortunes declined.Mini-ice age after middle of 1500s hurt agriculture, leading to dislocation of farmers and intermittent food shortages.Results in leveling and even slight decline in the population of Europe after 150 years of growth following the period of the Black Death.
4Absolutism (1648-1763) System where a ruler holds total power Louis XIV’s Versailles at nightAbsolutism ( )System where a ruler holds total powerOnly England and the Netherlands lacked an absolute government in Europe17th century Europe – Tied to the idea of the divine right of kingsRulers received their powers from godRulers were only accountable to godFrance was the model for the new systemUtilized more ambitious military organization in states that defined war as a central purposeThis required more careful administration and improved tax collection
5Principles of Government Origins of the StateHow did states and governments come into being? Four theories:Evolution TheoryForce TheoryDivine RightSocial Contract
6Social ContractJean-Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract (1762) – The general will is sacred and absolute and reflects the common interests of all the people.General will is not necessarily the will of the majority
7Social Contract ~ Hobbes Principles of GovernmentSocial Contract ~ Hobbes17th Century & The Age of Enlightenment, People begin to challenge the monarchy and the idea of Divine RightThomas Hobbes promotes the concept of government by social contract
8Hobbes ~ Social Contract Principles of GovernmentHobbes ~ Social ContractHis 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theoryIn a “state of Nature” there is no government and man is free.However, absolute freedom has a price… life is “cruel, brutish and short” Why?To escape this cruel reality, men would give up some freedom to the state; in return the government (state) would offer people security through law & order
9Locke ~ Social Contract Principles of GovernmentLocke ~ Social ContractJohn Locke took Hobbes ideas one step further by promoting the “right to revolution” – Second Treatise of Civil GovernmentNatural Rights – government should protect our life, liberty, and propertyLocke believed that if the government fails to provide people with security or if the state abused its power over the people the people could change the government. Does this happen today?
10Fall of the Spanish Hapsburgs Loss in the 30 years war – cemented the fact that Spain was no longer the European power – Netherlands independence – Cut ties with the Austrian branch of the familyNo domestic economic base – No Jews and MuslimsFell behind other countries in technology and businessPhillip II has depleted the Spanish treasury in battles against Turks, Dutch and English. BankruptSpain is spread very thinly with its many over-seas possessions.Philip II dies in 1598 – In 1700 Charles II dies with no heir – War of Spanish Succession
11The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Last of the religious wars, but also dynasty rivalry and balance of power.Started in the Holy Roman EmpireProtestant UnionCatholic LeagueAustrian and Catholic Hapsburgs v. French Bourbons
13Four Phases of War First phase– Second Phase—Danish Phase civil war in Bohemia as Bohemians fought for independence from Austrian Hapsburg rule.Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II totally defeated Protestant forces. (¾ land burned)Second Phase—Danish PhaseDenmark intervenes to support Protestant forces. Catholics roll up victories.Third Phase—Swedish PhaseSwedish King intervened to support the Protestant cause.Decisive for the Protestants and ended Hapsburg ambition of uniting all the German states under imperial authority.
14Four Phases of War Fourth Phase—French/International phase Death of Swedish King prompts French to enter the war to ensure that HRE does not remain strong.France declares war on Spain and sends assistance to protestant forces in Germany.War drags on with French, Dutch and Swedes, supported by Scots, Finns and German mercenaries burning, looting and destroying German agriculture and commerce.1/3 of urban and 40% of rural population destroyed. Economy ravaged.
15Peace of Westphalia—1648 Terms End of HRE as real political entity. Each of the German princes recognized as sovereign, independent authorityIndependence of United Provinces of the Netherlands acknowledged.France gets Alsace, increasing its size and prestige.France allowed to intervene at will in German affairs.Pope denied the right to intervene in German affairs.Portugal recognized as independent of Spain.France emerges as the dominant nation in Europe.
17Focus QuestionIs there really “equal rights” in the U.S.? What are some examples of people not having “equal rights”?
18Bourbon FranceSt. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 8/24/1572 – Queen Catherine attacks the Huguenots (French Protestants)Civil Wars retarded France’s development as an international and colonial powerWars lasted for 30 years.
19House of Bourbon Bourbons(Huguenot) become the ruling family. Henry IV ( ) – Had no choice but to convert to CatholicEdict of Nantes (1598)—Catholicism is the official religion of FranceHuguenots guaranteed freedom of worship and right to all political privileges.Huguenots have the right to fortify their castles and towns.
20BourbonsLouis XIII (1610) – He takes over at age 8 and mother helps outAt 15, he throws mother out and takes over.She convinces him that he needs an advisor
21Bourbons Cardinal Richelieu (reason of state) He eliminates all enemiesStrips noble’s of authorityAttacks the HuguenotsRichelieu dies in 1642 and Louis XIII dies a year later
22France and Louis XIV (1643-1715) His reign is regarded as the best example of absolute monarchy in the 17th centuryMost powerful monarch in French history1643 – Louis came to the throne at the age of 4 or 5 – Cardinal MazarinFronde – Riots in Paris force him in hidingFrance was the model for the new absolutist pattern of government17th CENTURYFrench kings steadily built up their powerStopped convening the medieval parliamentPassed laws as they saw fitBlew up the castles of dissident noblesAppointed a growing bureaucracy drawn from the merchants and lawyersSent direct representatives to the outlying provincesProfessionalized the army (gave more formal training to officers, provided uniforms and support, and createdmilitary hospitals and pensions)
23Sun King 23 – Louis took absolute control Said “I am the state” Called the Sun King because he was the source of light for all of his people – Estates GeneralAnti-ProtestantDestroyed churches and closed schools(1685) Revoked Edict of Nantes, which had given Protestant Huguenots freedom of religionProtestants fled France
24Versailles Slide show Established royal court at Versailles(1664-1697) Greatest danger came from nobles and princesLouis had complete authority over foreign policy, the church, and taxes – Colbert (mercantilism)His power was limited at the local levelNobles, local officials, and town councils had more influence than the kingLouis bribed people to make sure his policies were carried outPALACE AT VERSAILLESKept nobles busy with social functions so that they couldn’t interfere with affairs of stateWhen Versailles was built, it was actually a village. Now it is a suburb of Paris.Center of political power in France until the French Revolution began in 1789
25Louis XIV Developed standing army of 400,000 in times of war Added territory to FranceFrance was the strongest power in Europe and had many enemiesWar of Spanish Succession dragged on for 13 years – Philip Anjou wants to become king of Spain – Philip is grandson of Louis XIVWAR OF SUCCESSIONLouis’ grandson had been installed as leader of SpainSpanish thought that Louis would try to take over Spain
26Louis XIVHe loses the war of Spanish Succession – Defeated by the English, Dutch and AustriaTreaty of Utrecht - He has to give up land in North America – Spain had to give up Italian land and the low countries (Netherlands) – Balance of PowerLegacy for France after the death of the Sun KingGreat debt (bankruptcy)Surrounded by enemiesHis successor was 5 (great-grandson)On his deathbed, he told Louis XV to try and be at peacePATRON OF THE ARTSGave government a cultural role beyond any previous levels in the WestHIS ACADEMIESEncouraged science and worked to standardize the French language
27England Parliament – weakens monarch representatives elected by landownersParliament and Monarch were interdependent, not rivals – Conflict?
28EnglandConstitution – A set of unwritten or written precedents, laws, and royal actsCommon Law – legal practices and customsMagna Carta – all people equal under the lawTudor’s Legacy
29James I (1603-1625) First of the Stuart Dynasty - Scot He derives his power from GodSpends too much money – ParliamentPuritans – They want to purify the church of all Catholic rituals and symbols – Opponents of James IDied of stroke – age 59
30Charles (1625- 1647) Married to French Princess (Catholic) Parliament would not give him money, so he raises taxesHe forces people to house soldiers – at war with France
31Petition of RightKing forbidden from collecting taxes and forcing loansCould not imprison anyone without just causeTroops could not be housed by citizensCould not declare martial law unless at war
32Civil War (1642-1647) Charles dissolves Parliament for 11 years Charles recalls Parliament – Money? Conflicts with Ireland and ScotlandPuritan controlled ParliamentRoundheads Vs. CavaliersCromwell leads the Roundheads to victory
33New GovernmentCommonwealth – State governed by elected representativesParliament would not hold re-elections - Puritans1653 – Cromwell takes overHe puts in strict Puritan laws1658 – He dies and his son takes over – malaria – age 59
34Back to Monarchy Cromwell’s son is forced out Parliament decides to give power back to the Monarchy, but no absolutismStuart Dynasty would Continue –Charles II
35Charles II (1660-1685) He allows Parliament to run the country Church of England becomes official religion
36James II (1685-1689) Charles’ brother Catholic – ignores religious lawsLeads to division in Parliament – Exclusion Bill (Whigs and Tories)He orders to bring back the Catholic Church without the blessing of Parliament
37Glorious Revolution 1688Parliament names William and Mary as the new King and Queen – He is king of Netherlands and she is daughter of JamesThey force James II to exileThey rule from the NetherlandsParliament is even stronger
38William and Mary (1689-1702) They sign the English Bill of Rights Laws, taxes, army all were placed under the Parliament’s control and a list of basic rights established.Act of Settlement – no Catholic can become kingIreland forced to be ProtestantProperty owners can vote (4%)End of the Stuarts
39MercantilismThe economic doctrine that government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the state- Balance of TradeMercantilism was a cause of frequent European wars in that time and motivated colonial expansion.
40MercantilismHigh tariffs, especially on manufactured goods, are an almost universal feature of mercantilist policy.Building a network of overseas colonies;Forbidding colonies to trade with other nations;Monopolizing markets with stable ports;Banning the export of gold and silver, even for payments; money system – exchange of currency
41Mercantilism Forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships; Export subsidies; Government fundedPromoting manufacturing with research or direct subsidies;Limiting wages;Maximizing the use of domestic resources;Restricting domestic consumption with non-tariff barriers to trade. Colonies
42The New Austrian Empire Hapsburgs had been leaders of Holy Roman EmpireThey lost their empire in GermanyCreated a new empire in Austria, Hungary, and Central Europe1713 – Pragmatic Sanction – Charles VI wants his daughter, Maria Theresa, to succeed him – He asks other European leaders to accept the succession. Yeah rightTOO MANY NATIONAL GROUPSEach area had its own laws and political life
43Maria Theresa ( )Her government pays for health care, roads, and prisonsShe encourages trade and industry – Austria prospersAnd she raises 16 kids – 3 queens and 2 kingsDied at age 63
44Prussia and Frederick the Great Emerged as one of the great European powers following the Thirty Years’ WarVery clever in diplomacyFrederick built a large and efficient standing armyAs many as 85,000 menPrussian kings initially didn’t want to fight in any major warsPRUSSIAEastern GermanyTHIRTY YEARS’ WAR ( )Mostly fought between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman EmpireContinuation of the Hapsburg (Austria)-Bourbon (France) rivalry for power and dominance in EuropeLed to war between France and the HapsburgsEnded with the Peace of Westphalia which allowed German princes within the Holy Roman Empire to each select their province’s religionARMYBuilt by Frederick William and his son and grandson18TH CENTURYPrussia turned to a series of conflicts that won new territory
45Frederick the Great Promoted economic activity War of Austrian SuccessionTurned back by Charles VI’s daughter, Maria TheresaPromoted economic activityCreated strong bureaucracyBegan state-sponsored school system
46Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War in the Americas) Two sides:Austria, France, and Russia vs. Britain and PrussiaPrussia wins in EuropeFrance and England were battling for colonies in the Americas – England wins all land West of the Mississippi River, Canada and India
48Russia and Peter the Great Predecessors:Tsar (czar) Ivan the Great (III)Freed Moscow from Mongols and used centralized ruleTsar Ivan IV (the Terrible)Michael Romanov founded the Romanov dynasty ( )He was chosen by representatives from 50 Russian citiesRISE TO POWERBecause it broke free of Mongol control (Tartar)The Duchy of Moscow was the center for the liberation effort beginning in the 14th centuryMoscow princes had initially gained political experience as tax collectors for the MongolsIVAN IIILarge part of Russia was freed after 1462Organized a strong armyGave the government a military emphasis that it would keep for a long time1480—Russia was freed from any payment to the MongolsBecause Russia had retained a lot of its power under the Mongols, it was easy to return to the previous systemUnder the Mongols Russia lost literacy and tradeMarried the niece of the last Byzantine emperor which allowed him to exert control over all Orthodox churches (even outside Russia)Gave himself the title of tsar because he saw Russia as a third RomeIVAN IVContinued the policy of Russian expansion in Central Asia (wanted to push the former Mongol overlords farther back)Russia had few natural barriers to invasionRussia’s expansion to the south and the Ottomans’ expansion to the north eliminated independent central AsiaExpansion allowed the tsars to reward nobles by giving them estates in new territoriesKilled many boyars whom he suspected of conspiracyDied without an heir, which started the Time of TroublesMICHAEL ROMANOVReestablished order without great difficulty and drove out foreign invadersRussia gained control of UkraineALEXIS ROMANVAbolished assemblies of nobles and gained new powers over the Russian churchWanted to purge the church of superstitions and errors that crept in during Mongol timesOld Believers were exiled to Siberia or southern RussiaRUSSIA’S RISE WAS LIKE MACEDONIA’S AND ROME’S—A NEW STATE ON THE FRINGES OF THE “CIVILIZED WORLD” THAT SUDDENLY AND STEADILY GAINED GREAT POWERPeasants recruited by Ivan III and Ivan IV to migrate to newly seized lands, especially in the southCOSSACKSThey were Russian pioneers who combined agriculture with daring military feats on horsebackSLAVESUsed by Russia into the 18th centuryEARLY LEADERSCarefully managed contacts with western EuropeBritain traded manufactured goods for furs and raw materialsRUSSIA AND TRADETsars imported Italian artists and architects to design church buildings and the royal palace in the KremlinProduced ornate-onion-shaped domes
49Peter the Great ( )Absolutist monarch who claimed divine right to the throneEventually made himself head of the Russian Orthodox ChurchRUSSIA HAD BECOME ONE OF THE GREAT LAND EMPIRES BUT REMAINED UNUSUALLY AGRICULTURAL (COMPARED TO WEST OR ASIA)PETERSon of Alexis Romanov and grandson of Michael Romanov (founder of the dynasty)Became tsar in his early 20s6 feet 8 inches tallExceptionally intelligent with ruthless energyABSOLUTE MONARCHHad no interest in parliaments of the WestTried to use the state as a reform force (behavior could be modified by state degree)REDUCED POWERS OF BOYARSBureaucrats were recruited from outside the boyarsVISITED THE WESTIncognitoSought Western allies for a crusade against Turkish power in Europe (found few takers)Visited many Western manufacturing centers and worked as a ship’s carpenter in HollandBrought scores of Western artisans back with him to RussiaREVOLTSExecuted some of the ringleaders personally
50Peter the Great (1689-1725) Fascinated by Europe and the sea WesternizationWanted to make Russia respectable to the WestMen asked to shave beards and wear Western clothesWomen received more freedomReorganized Russian armyCopied European militariesStanding army of 210,000Included peasants who were drafted for 25 yearsAdded infantryHired European officers to train the soldiersCreated Russian navyMILITARYCreated a specially trained fighting force that put down local militiasSet up a secret police to prevent dissent and to supervise the bureaucracy (Peter’s Chancery of Secret Police)Created a more well-defined military hierarchyImproved army's weaponry
51Peter the Great (1689-1725) Encouraged education for nobles Especially in math and technical subjectsChanges were selectiveApplied only to nobles, not to peasantsWorkers were serfs rather than free laborersEDUCATIONFounded scientific institutes and academies along Western linesCHANGESResisted by manyPeasants resented the western airs and expenses of their landlords (some only spoke French)Some of the elite resisted because they believed that Russia’s customs were superior to the West’sSerious discussion of the latest scientific and technical findings became common
52Peter the Great ( )Moved capital of Russia from Moscow to St. PetersburgSwampyAs many as 100,000 peasants died while building the cityPeter ordered that all nobles move from Moscow to St. PetersburgST. PETERSBURGBaltic CityOnly good part of its location was that it was at the mouth of the Neva River
53Peter the Great (1689-1725) Expansion 1725 – Death Fought for 21 years against Sweden to get access to warm-water ports on the BalticLost to Ottomans – Black Sea1725 – DeathSWEDENReduced to second-rate military statusThis victory gave Peter access to a largely ice-free portDEATHCaught cold while saving drowning men in the Gulf of Finland and died the next year
54Catherine the Great (1762-1769) German Replaced her husbandEnlightened Despot – educated the public, except the serfsDefeats the Ottomans – Black SeaPartition of Poland (1772) – Divide the land in 3 parts – Russia, Prussia, and AustriaPoland would not be free until 1919