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STATE BUILDING IN EUROPE

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1 STATE BUILDING IN EUROPE
Chapter 15

2 Focus Question Describe 2 events that lead to European Monarchs having Absolute power.

3 Social Upheaval in Europe
Between 1560 and 1650 Europe suffered economic and social crises as well as political upheaval. In addition to the religious turmoil and wars, other factors contributed. Economy began to retract. Italy, which had been an economic hot-bed of trade during the renaissance period was eclipsed by Atlantic powers. Spain’s fortunes declined. Mini-ice age after middle of 1500s hurt agriculture, leading to dislocation of farmers and intermittent food shortages. Results in leveling and even slight decline in the population of Europe after 150 years of growth following the period of the Black Death.

4 Absolutism (1648-1763) System where a ruler holds total power
Louis XIV’s Versailles at night Absolutism ( ) System where a ruler holds total power Only England and the Netherlands lacked an absolute government in Europe 17th century Europe – Tied to the idea of the divine right of kings Rulers received their powers from god Rulers were only accountable to god France was the model for the new system Utilized more ambitious military organization in states that defined war as a central purpose This required more careful administration and improved tax collection

5 Principles of Government
Origins of the State How did states and governments come into being? Four theories: Evolution Theory Force Theory Divine Right Social Contract

6 Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract (1762) – The general will is sacred and absolute and reflects the common interests of all the people. General will is not necessarily the will of the majority

7 Social Contract ~ Hobbes
Principles of Government Social Contract ~ Hobbes 17th Century & The Age of Enlightenment, People begin to challenge the monarchy and the idea of Divine Right Thomas Hobbes promotes the concept of government by social contract

8 Hobbes ~ Social Contract
Principles of Government Hobbes ~ Social Contract His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory In a “state of Nature” there is no government and man is free. However, absolute freedom has a price… life is “cruel, brutish and short” Why? To escape this cruel reality, men would give up some freedom to the state; in return the government (state) would offer people security through law & order

9 Locke ~ Social Contract
Principles of Government Locke ~ Social Contract John Locke took Hobbes ideas one step further by promoting the “right to revolution” – Second Treatise of Civil Government Natural Rights – government should protect our life, liberty, and property Locke believed that if the government fails to provide people with security or if the state abused its power over the people the people could change the government. Does this happen today?

10 Fall of the Spanish Hapsburgs
Loss in the 30 years war – cemented the fact that Spain was no longer the European power – Netherlands independence – Cut ties with the Austrian branch of the family No domestic economic base – No Jews and Muslims Fell behind other countries in technology and business Phillip II has depleted the Spanish treasury in battles against Turks, Dutch and English. Bankrupt Spain is spread very thinly with its many over-seas possessions. Philip II dies in 1598 – In 1700 Charles II dies with no heir – War of Spanish Succession

11 The Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
Last of the religious wars, but also dynasty rivalry and balance of power. Started in the Holy Roman Empire Protestant Union Catholic League Austrian and Catholic Hapsburgs v. French Bourbons

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13 Four Phases of War First phase– Second Phase—Danish Phase
civil war in Bohemia as Bohemians fought for independence from Austrian Hapsburg rule. Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II totally defeated Protestant forces. (¾ land burned) Second Phase—Danish Phase Denmark intervenes to support Protestant forces. Catholics roll up victories. Third Phase—Swedish Phase Swedish King intervened to support the Protestant cause. Decisive for the Protestants and ended Hapsburg ambition of uniting all the German states under imperial authority.

14 Four Phases of War Fourth Phase—French/International phase
Death of Swedish King prompts French to enter the war to ensure that HRE does not remain strong. France declares war on Spain and sends assistance to protestant forces in Germany. War drags on with French, Dutch and Swedes, supported by Scots, Finns and German mercenaries burning, looting and destroying German agriculture and commerce. 1/3 of urban and 40% of rural population destroyed. Economy ravaged.

15 Peace of Westphalia—1648 Terms
End of HRE as real political entity. Each of the German princes recognized as sovereign, independent authority Independence of United Provinces of the Netherlands acknowledged. France gets Alsace, increasing its size and prestige. France allowed to intervene at will in German affairs. Pope denied the right to intervene in German affairs. Portugal recognized as independent of Spain. France emerges as the dominant nation in Europe.

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17 Focus Question Is there really “equal rights” in the U.S.? What are some examples of people not having “equal rights”?

18 Bourbon France St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 8/24/1572 – Queen Catherine attacks the Huguenots (French Protestants) Civil Wars retarded France’s development as an international and colonial power Wars lasted for 30 years.

19 House of Bourbon Bourbons(Huguenot) become the ruling family.
Henry IV ( ) – Had no choice but to convert to Catholic Edict of Nantes (1598)— Catholicism is the official religion of France Huguenots guaranteed freedom of worship and right to all political privileges. Huguenots have the right to fortify their castles and towns.

20 Bourbons Louis XIII (1610) – He takes over at age 8 and mother helps out At 15, he throws mother out and takes over. She convinces him that he needs an advisor

21 Bourbons Cardinal Richelieu (reason of state)
He eliminates all enemies Strips noble’s of authority Attacks the Huguenots Richelieu dies in 1642 and Louis XIII dies a year later

22 France and Louis XIV (1643-1715)
His reign is regarded as the best example of absolute monarchy in the 17th century Most powerful monarch in French history 1643 – Louis came to the throne at the age of 4 or 5 – Cardinal Mazarin Fronde – Riots in Paris force him in hiding France was the model for the new absolutist pattern of government 17th CENTURY French kings steadily built up their power Stopped convening the medieval parliament Passed laws as they saw fit Blew up the castles of dissident nobles Appointed a growing bureaucracy drawn from the merchants and lawyers Sent direct representatives to the outlying provinces Professionalized the army (gave more formal training to officers, provided uniforms and support, and created military hospitals and pensions)

23 Sun King 23 – Louis took absolute control Said “I am the state”
Called the Sun King because he was the source of light for all of his people – Estates General Anti-Protestant Destroyed churches and closed schools (1685) Revoked Edict of Nantes, which had given Protestant Huguenots freedom of religion Protestants fled France

24 Versailles Slide show Established royal court at Versailles(1664-1697)
Greatest danger came from nobles and princes Louis had complete authority over foreign policy, the church, and taxes – Colbert (mercantilism) His power was limited at the local level Nobles, local officials, and town councils had more influence than the king Louis bribed people to make sure his policies were carried out PALACE AT VERSAILLES Kept nobles busy with social functions so that they couldn’t interfere with affairs of state When Versailles was built, it was actually a village. Now it is a suburb of Paris. Center of political power in France until the French Revolution began in 1789

25 Louis XIV Developed standing army of 400,000 in times of war
Added territory to France France was the strongest power in Europe and had many enemies War of Spanish Succession dragged on for 13 years – Philip Anjou wants to become king of Spain – Philip is grandson of Louis XIV WAR OF SUCCESSION Louis’ grandson had been installed as leader of Spain Spanish thought that Louis would try to take over Spain

26 Louis XIV He loses the war of Spanish Succession – Defeated by the English, Dutch and Austria Treaty of Utrecht - He has to give up land in North America – Spain had to give up Italian land and the low countries (Netherlands) – Balance of Power Legacy for France after the death of the Sun King Great debt (bankruptcy) Surrounded by enemies His successor was 5 (great-grandson) On his deathbed, he told Louis XV to try and be at peace PATRON OF THE ARTS Gave government a cultural role beyond any previous levels in the West HIS ACADEMIES Encouraged science and worked to standardize the French language

27 England Parliament – weakens monarch
representatives elected by landowners Parliament and Monarch were interdependent, not rivals – Conflict?

28 England Constitution – A set of unwritten or written precedents, laws, and royal acts Common Law – legal practices and customs Magna Carta – all people equal under the law Tudor’s Legacy

29 James I (1603-1625) First of the Stuart Dynasty - Scot
He derives his power from God Spends too much money – Parliament Puritans – They want to purify the church of all Catholic rituals and symbols – Opponents of James I Died of stroke – age 59

30 Charles (1625- 1647) Married to French Princess (Catholic)
Parliament would not give him money, so he raises taxes He forces people to house soldiers – at war with France

31 Petition of Right King forbidden from collecting taxes and forcing loans Could not imprison anyone without just cause Troops could not be housed by citizens Could not declare martial law unless at war

32 Civil War (1642-1647) Charles dissolves Parliament for 11 years
Charles recalls Parliament – Money? Conflicts with Ireland and Scotland Puritan controlled Parliament Roundheads Vs. Cavaliers Cromwell leads the Roundheads to victory

33 New Government Commonwealth – State governed by elected representatives Parliament would not hold re-elections - Puritans 1653 – Cromwell takes over He puts in strict Puritan laws 1658 – He dies and his son takes over – malaria – age 59

34 Back to Monarchy Cromwell’s son is forced out
Parliament decides to give power back to the Monarchy, but no absolutism Stuart Dynasty would Continue – Charles II

35 Charles II (1660-1685) He allows Parliament to run the country
Church of England becomes official religion

36 James II (1685-1689) Charles’ brother
Catholic – ignores religious laws Leads to division in Parliament – Exclusion Bill (Whigs and Tories) He orders to bring back the Catholic Church without the blessing of Parliament

37 Glorious Revolution 1688 Parliament names William and Mary as the new King and Queen – He is king of Netherlands and she is daughter of James They force James II to exile They rule from the Netherlands Parliament is even stronger

38 William and Mary (1689-1702) They sign the English Bill of Rights
Laws, taxes, army all were placed under the Parliament’s control and a list of basic rights established. Act of Settlement – no Catholic can become king Ireland forced to be Protestant Property owners can vote (4%) End of the Stuarts

39 Mercantilism The economic doctrine that government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the state- Balance of Trade Mercantilism was a cause of frequent European wars in that time and motivated colonial expansion.

40 Mercantilism High tariffs, especially on manufactured goods, are an almost universal feature of mercantilist policy. Building a network of overseas colonies; Forbidding colonies to trade with other nations; Monopolizing markets with stable ports; Banning the export of gold and silver, even for payments; money system – exchange of currency

41 Mercantilism Forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships;
Export subsidies; Government funded Promoting manufacturing with research or direct subsidies; Limiting wages; Maximizing the use of domestic resources; Restricting domestic consumption with non-tariff barriers to trade. Colonies

42 The New Austrian Empire
Hapsburgs had been leaders of Holy Roman Empire They lost their empire in Germany Created a new empire in Austria, Hungary, and Central Europe 1713 – Pragmatic Sanction – Charles VI wants his daughter, Maria Theresa, to succeed him – He asks other European leaders to accept the succession. Yeah right TOO MANY NATIONAL GROUPS Each area had its own laws and political life

43 Maria Theresa ( ) Her government pays for health care, roads, and prisons She encourages trade and industry – Austria prospers And she raises 16 kids – 3 queens and 2 kings Died at age 63

44 Prussia and Frederick the Great
Emerged as one of the great European powers following the Thirty Years’ War Very clever in diplomacy Frederick built a large and efficient standing army As many as 85,000 men Prussian kings initially didn’t want to fight in any major wars PRUSSIA Eastern Germany THIRTY YEARS’ WAR ( ) Mostly fought between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire Continuation of the Hapsburg (Austria)-Bourbon (France) rivalry for power and dominance in Europe Led to war between France and the Hapsburgs Ended with the Peace of Westphalia which allowed German princes within the Holy Roman Empire to each select their province’s religion ARMY Built by Frederick William and his son and grandson 18TH CENTURY Prussia turned to a series of conflicts that won new territory

45 Frederick the Great Promoted economic activity
War of Austrian Succession Turned back by Charles VI’s daughter, Maria Theresa Promoted economic activity Created strong bureaucracy Began state-sponsored school system

46 Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War in the Americas)
Two sides: Austria, France, and Russia vs. Britain and Prussia Prussia wins in Europe France and England were battling for colonies in the Americas – England wins all land West of the Mississippi River, Canada and India

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48 Russia and Peter the Great
Predecessors: Tsar (czar) Ivan the Great (III) Freed Moscow from Mongols and used centralized rule Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible) Michael Romanov founded the Romanov dynasty ( ) He was chosen by representatives from 50 Russian cities RISE TO POWER Because it broke free of Mongol control (Tartar) The Duchy of Moscow was the center for the liberation effort beginning in the 14th century Moscow princes had initially gained political experience as tax collectors for the Mongols IVAN III Large part of Russia was freed after 1462 Organized a strong army Gave the government a military emphasis that it would keep for a long time 1480—Russia was freed from any payment to the Mongols Because Russia had retained a lot of its power under the Mongols, it was easy to return to the previous system Under the Mongols Russia lost literacy and trade Married the niece of the last Byzantine emperor which allowed him to exert control over all Orthodox churches (even outside Russia) Gave himself the title of tsar because he saw Russia as a third Rome IVAN IV Continued the policy of Russian expansion in Central Asia (wanted to push the former Mongol overlords farther back) Russia had few natural barriers to invasion Russia’s expansion to the south and the Ottomans’ expansion to the north eliminated independent central Asia Expansion allowed the tsars to reward nobles by giving them estates in new territories Killed many boyars whom he suspected of conspiracy Died without an heir, which started the Time of Troubles MICHAEL ROMANOV Reestablished order without great difficulty and drove out foreign invaders Russia gained control of Ukraine ALEXIS ROMANV Abolished assemblies of nobles and gained new powers over the Russian church Wanted to purge the church of superstitions and errors that crept in during Mongol times Old Believers were exiled to Siberia or southern Russia RUSSIA’S RISE WAS LIKE MACEDONIA’S AND ROME’S—A NEW STATE ON THE FRINGES OF THE “CIVILIZED WORLD” THAT SUDDENLY AND STEADILY GAINED GREAT POWER Peasants recruited by Ivan III and Ivan IV to migrate to newly seized lands, especially in the south COSSACKS They were Russian pioneers who combined agriculture with daring military feats on horseback SLAVES Used by Russia into the 18th century EARLY LEADERS Carefully managed contacts with western Europe Britain traded manufactured goods for furs and raw materials RUSSIA AND TRADE Tsars imported Italian artists and architects to design church buildings and the royal palace in the Kremlin Produced ornate-onion-shaped domes

49 Peter the Great ( ) Absolutist monarch who claimed divine right to the throne Eventually made himself head of the Russian Orthodox Church RUSSIA HAD BECOME ONE OF THE GREAT LAND EMPIRES BUT REMAINED UNUSUALLY AGRICULTURAL (COMPARED TO WEST OR ASIA) PETER Son of Alexis Romanov and grandson of Michael Romanov (founder of the dynasty) Became tsar in his early 20s 6 feet 8 inches tall Exceptionally intelligent with ruthless energy ABSOLUTE MONARCH Had no interest in parliaments of the West Tried to use the state as a reform force (behavior could be modified by state degree) REDUCED POWERS OF BOYARS Bureaucrats were recruited from outside the boyars VISITED THE WEST Incognito Sought Western allies for a crusade against Turkish power in Europe (found few takers) Visited many Western manufacturing centers and worked as a ship’s carpenter in Holland Brought scores of Western artisans back with him to Russia REVOLTS Executed some of the ringleaders personally

50 Peter the Great (1689-1725) Fascinated by Europe and the sea
Westernization Wanted to make Russia respectable to the West Men asked to shave beards and wear Western clothes Women received more freedom Reorganized Russian army Copied European militaries Standing army of 210,000 Included peasants who were drafted for 25 years Added infantry Hired European officers to train the soldiers Created Russian navy MILITARY Created a specially trained fighting force that put down local militias Set up a secret police to prevent dissent and to supervise the bureaucracy (Peter’s Chancery of Secret Police) Created a more well-defined military hierarchy Improved army's weaponry

51 Peter the Great (1689-1725) Encouraged education for nobles
Especially in math and technical subjects Changes were selective Applied only to nobles, not to peasants Workers were serfs rather than free laborers EDUCATION Founded scientific institutes and academies along Western lines CHANGES Resisted by many Peasants resented the western airs and expenses of their landlords (some only spoke French) Some of the elite resisted because they believed that Russia’s customs were superior to the West’s Serious discussion of the latest scientific and technical findings became common

52 Peter the Great ( ) Moved capital of Russia from Moscow to St. Petersburg Swampy As many as 100,000 peasants died while building the city Peter ordered that all nobles move from Moscow to St. Petersburg ST. PETERSBURG Baltic City Only good part of its location was that it was at the mouth of the Neva River

53 Peter the Great (1689-1725) Expansion 1725 – Death
Fought for 21 years against Sweden to get access to warm-water ports on the Baltic Lost to Ottomans – Black Sea 1725 – Death SWEDEN Reduced to second-rate military status This victory gave Peter access to a largely ice-free port DEATH Caught cold while saving drowning men in the Gulf of Finland and died the next year

54 Catherine the Great (1762-1769) German
Replaced her husband Enlightened Despot – educated the public, except the serfs Defeats the Ottomans – Black Sea Partition of Poland (1772) – Divide the land in 3 parts – Russia, Prussia, and Austria Poland would not be free until 1919


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