Focus Question Describe 2 events that lead to European Monarchs having Absolute power.
Social Upheaval in Europe Between 1560 and 1650 Europe suffered economic and social crises as well as political upheaval. In addition to the religious turmoil and wars, other factors contributed. Economy began to retract. Italy, which had been an economic hot-bed of trade during the renaissance period was eclipsed by Atlantic powers. Spain’s fortunes declined. Mini-ice age after middle of 1500s hurt agriculture, leading to dislocation of farmers and intermittent food shortages. Results in leveling and even slight decline in the population of Europe after 150 years of growth following the period of the Black Death.
Absolutism (1648-1763) System where a ruler holds total power Only England and the Netherlands lacked an absolute government in Europe 17 th century Europe – Tied to the idea of the divine right of kings Rulers received their powers from god Rulers were only accountable to god France was the model for the new system Louis XIV’s Versailles at night
Origins of the State Evolution Theory Force Theory Divine Right Social Contract How did states and governments come into being? Four theories: Principles of Government
Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract (1762) – The general will is sacred and absolute and reflects the common interests of all the people. General will is not necessarily the will of the majority
Social Contract ~ Hobbes 17 th Century & The Age of Enlightenment, People begin to challenge the monarchy and the idea of Divine Right Thomas Hobbes promotes the concept of government by social contract Principles of Government
Hobbes ~ Social Contract His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory In a “state of Nature” there is no government and man is free. However, absolute freedom has a price… life is “cruel, brutish and short” Why? To escape this cruel reality, men would give up some freedom to the state; in return the government (state) would offer people security through law & order Principles of Government
Locke ~ Social Contract John Locke took Hobbes ideas one step further by promoting the “right to revolution” – Second Treatise of Civil Government Natural Rights – government should protect our life, liberty, and property Locke believed that if the government fails to provide people with security or if the state abused its power over the people the people could change the government. Does this happen today? Principles of Government
Fall of the Spanish Hapsburgs Loss in the 30 years war – cemented the fact that Spain was no longer the European power – Netherlands independence – Cut ties with the Austrian branch of the family No domestic economic base – No Jews and Muslims Fell behind other countries in technology and business Phillip II has depleted the Spanish treasury in battles against Turks, Dutch and English. Bankrupt Spain is spread very thinly with its many over-seas possessions. Philip II dies in 1598 – In 1700 Charles II dies with no heir – War of Spanish Succession
The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Last of the religious wars, but also dynasty rivalry and balance of power. Started in the Holy Roman Empire Protestant Union Catholic League Austrian and Catholic Hapsburgs v. French Bourbons
Four Phases of War First phase– civil war in Bohemia as Bohemians fought for independence from Austrian Hapsburg rule. Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II totally defeated Protestant forces. (¾ land burned) Second Phase—Danish Phase Denmark intervenes to support Protestant forces. Catholics roll up victories. Third Phase—Swedish Phase Swedish King intervened to support the Protestant cause. Decisive for the Protestants and ended Hapsburg ambition of uniting all the German states under imperial authority.
Four Phases of War Fourth Phase—French/International phase Death of Swedish King prompts French to enter the war to ensure that HRE does not remain strong. France declares war on Spain and sends assistance to protestant forces in Germany. War drags on with French, Dutch and Swedes, supported by Scots, Finns and German mercenaries burning, looting and destroying German agriculture and commerce. 1/3 of urban and 40% of rural population destroyed. Economy ravaged.
Peace of Westphalia—1648 Terms End of HRE as real political entity. Each of the German princes recognized as sovereign, independent authority Independence of United Provinces of the Netherlands acknowledged. France gets Alsace, increasing its size and prestige. France allowed to intervene at will in German affairs. Pope denied the right to intervene in German affairs. Portugal recognized as independent of Spain. France emerges as the dominant nation in Europe.
Focus Question Is there really “equal rights” in the U.S.? What are some examples of people not having “equal rights”?
Bourbon France St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 8/24/1572 – Queen Catherine attacks the Huguenots (French Protestants) Civil Wars retarded France’s development as an international and colonial power Wars lasted for 30 years.
House of Bourbon Bourbons(Huguenot) become the ruling family. Henry IV (1598-1610) – Had no choice but to convert to Catholic Edict of Nantes (1598)— Catholicism is the official religion of France Huguenots guaranteed freedom of worship and right to all political privileges. Huguenots have the right to fortify their castles and towns.
Bourbons Louis XIII (1610) – He takes over at age 8 and mother helps out At 15, he throws mother out and takes over. She convinces him that he needs an advisor
Bourbons Cardinal Richelieu (reason of state) He eliminates all enemies Strips noble’s of authority Attacks the Huguenots Richelieu dies in 1642 and Louis XIII dies a year later
France and Louis XIV (1643-1715) His reign is regarded as the best example of absolute monarchy in the 17 th century Most powerful monarch in French history 1643 – Louis came to the throne at the age of 4 or 5 – Cardinal Mazarin Fronde – Riots in Paris force him in hiding
Sun King 23 – Louis took absolute control Said “I am the state” Called the Sun King because he was the source of light for all of his people – Estates General Anti-Protestant Destroyed churches and closed schools (1685) Revoked Edict of Nantes, which had given Protestant Huguenots freedom of religion Protestants fled France
Versailles Slide show Established royal court at Versailles(1664-1697) Greatest danger came from nobles and princes Louis had complete authority over foreign policy, the church, and taxes – Colbert (mercantilism) His power was limited at the local level Nobles, local officials, and town councils had more influence than the king Louis bribed people to make sure his policies were carried out
Louis XIV Developed standing army of 400,000 in times of war Added territory to France France was the strongest power in Europe and had many enemies War of Spanish Succession dragged on for 13 years – Philip Anjou wants to become king of Spain – Philip is grandson of Louis XIV
Louis XIV He loses the war of Spanish Succession – Defeated by the English, Dutch and Austria Treaty of Utrecht - He has to give up land in North America – Spain had to give up Italian land and the low countries (Netherlands) – Balance of Power Legacy for France after the death of the Sun King Great debt (bankruptcy) Surrounded by enemies His successor was 5 (great-grandson) On his deathbed, he told Louis XV to try and be at peace
England Parliament – weakens monarch representatives elected by landowners Parliament and Monarch were interdependent, not rivals – Conflict?
England Constitution – A set of unwritten or written precedents, laws, and royal acts Common Law – legal practices and customs Magna Carta – all people equal under the law Tudor’s Legacy
James I (1603-1625) First of the Stuart Dynasty - Scot He derives his power from God Spends too much money – Parliament Puritans – They want to purify the church of all Catholic rituals and symbols – Opponents of James I Died of stroke – age 59
Charles (1625- 1647) Married to French Princess (Catholic) Parliament would not give him money, so he raises taxes He forces people to house soldiers – at war with France
Petition of Right - 1628 King forbidden from collecting taxes and forcing loans Could not imprison anyone without just cause Troops could not be housed by citizens Could not declare martial law unless at war
Civil War (1642-1647) Charles dissolves Parliament for 11 years Charles recalls Parliament – Money? Conflicts with Ireland and Scotland Puritan controlled Parliament Roundheads Vs. Cavaliers Cromwell leads the Roundheads to victory
New Government Commonwealth – State governed by elected representatives Parliament would not hold re- elections - Puritans 1653 – Cromwell takes over He puts in strict Puritan laws 1658 – He dies and his son takes over – malaria – age 59
Back to Monarchy Cromwell’s son is forced out Parliament decides to give power back to the Monarchy, but no absolutism Stuart Dynasty would Continue – Charles II
Charles II (1660-1685) He allows Parliament to run the country Church of England becomes official religion
James II (1685-1689) Charles’ brother Catholic – ignores religious laws Leads to division in Parliament – Exclusion Bill (Whigs and Tories) He orders to bring back the Catholic Church without the blessing of Parliament
Glorious Revolution 1688 Parliament names William and Mary as the new King and Queen – He is king of Netherlands and she is daughter of James They force James II to exile They rule from the Netherlands Parliament is even stronger
William and Mary (1689-1702) They sign the English Bill of Rights Laws, taxes, army all were placed under the Parliament’s control and a list of basic rights established. Act of Settlement – no Catholic can become king Ireland forced to be Protestant Property owners can vote (4%) End of the Stuarts
Mercantilism The economic doctrine that government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the state- Balance of Trade Mercantilism was a cause of frequent European wars in that time and motivated colonial expansion.
Mercantilism High tariffs, especially on manufactured goods, are an almost universal feature of mercantilist policy. Building a network of overseas colonies; Forbidding colonies to trade with other nations; Monopolizing markets with stable ports; Banning the export of gold and silver, even for payments; money system – exchange of currency
Mercantilism Forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships; Export subsidies; Government funded Promoting manufacturing with research or direct subsidies; Limiting wages; Maximizing the use of domestic resources; Restricting domestic consumption with non-tariff barriers to trade. Colonies
The New Austrian Empire Hapsburgs had been leaders of Holy Roman Empire They lost their empire in Germany Created a new empire in Austria, Hungary, and Central Europe 1713 – Pragmatic Sanction – Charles VI wants his daughter, Maria Theresa, to succeed him – He asks other European leaders to accept the succession. Yeah right
Maria Theresa (1740-1780) Her government pays for health care, roads, and prisons She encourages trade and industry – Austria prospers And she raises 16 kids – 3 queens and 2 kings Died at age 63
Prussia and Frederick the Great Emerged as one of the great European powers following the Thirty Years’ War Very clever in diplomacy Frederick built a large and efficient standing army As many as 85,000 men Prussian kings initially didn’t want to fight in any major wars
Frederick the Great War of Austrian Succession Turned back by Charles VI’s daughter, Maria Theresa Promoted economic activity Created strong bureaucracy Began state-sponsored school system
Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War in the Americas) Two sides: Austria, France, and Russia vs. Britain and Prussia Prussia wins in Europe France and England were battling for colonies in the Americas – England wins all land West of the Mississippi River, Canada and India
Russia and Peter the Great Predecessors: Tsar (czar) Ivan the Great (III) Freed Moscow from Mongols and used centralized rule Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible) Michael Romanov founded the Romanov dynasty (1613-1917) He was chosen by representatives from 50 Russian cities
Peter the Great (1689-1725) Absolutist monarch who claimed divine right to the throne Eventually made himself head of the Russian Orthodox Church
Peter the Great (1689-1725) Fascinated by Europe and the sea Westernization Wanted to make Russia respectable to the West Men asked to shave beards and wear Western clothes Women received more freedom Reorganized Russian army Copied European militaries Standing army of 210,000 Included peasants who were drafted for 25 years Added infantry Hired European officers to train the soldiers Created Russian navy
Peter the Great (1689-1725) Encouraged education for nobles Especially in math and technical subjects Changes were selective Applied only to nobles, not to peasants Workers were serfs rather than free laborers
Peter the Great (1689-1725) Moved capital of Russia from Moscow to St. Petersburg Swampy As many as 100,000 peasants died while building the city Peter ordered that all nobles move from Moscow to St. Petersburg
Peter the Great (1689-1725) Expansion Fought for 21 years against Sweden to get access to warm-water ports on the Baltic Lost to Ottomans – Black Sea 1725 – Death
Catherine the Great (1762-1769) German Replaced her husband Enlightened Despot – educated the public, except the serfs Defeats the Ottomans – Black Sea Partition of Poland (1772) – Divide the land in 3 parts – Russia, Prussia, and Austria Poland would not be free until 1919