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Chapter 2:Origins of American government

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1 Chapter 2:Origins of American government
Section 1: Our political beginnings

2 Section 1: Our political beginnings
Basic concepts of government A. ordered government- 1. need orderly regulation of their relationships w/ one another 2. still have sheriff, coroner, assessor, justice of the peace, grand jury, counties, & townships

3 Section 1: Our political beginnings
B. Limited Government 1. government is not all powerful 2. idea planted in the land of England C. Representative Government 1. gov. should serve the will of the people 2. people should have a voice in gov

4 Section 1:Our political beginnings
II. Landmark English Documents A. Magna Carta 1. King John, Runnymede in trial by jury 3. due process of law 4. did away with absolute power 5. Parliament protected

5 Section 1: Our political beginnings
B. The Petition of Right 1. further limited the king’s power 2. no quartering of soldiers 3. no longer punish or imprison people w/o trial by jury of peers/ law of land 4. no martial law during peacetime C. English Bill of Rights

6 Section 1: Our political Beginnings
Glorious Revolution 2. free elections for Parliament 3. no standing army in peacetime (unless Parliament said so). 4. right to a fair trial 5. no excessive bail 6. no cruel and unusual punishment

7 Section 1:Our political Beginnings
III. The English Colonies A. Royal colonies 1. direct control by the crown 2. controlled by governor 3. bicameral rule- 2 house B. Proprietary colonies 1. established with land grants

8 Section 1:Our political Beginnings
2. unicameral-one house C. Charter colonies 1. self-governing 2. given charter to operate

9 CHAPTER 2:origins of american government
Section 2:the coming of independence

10 Section 2: coming of independence
Britain’s Colonial Policies A. controlled by GB 3,000 miles away B. power of purse C. paid few taxes D. did not want the royal gov. meddling in their local affairs Growing colonial unity A. New England Confederation - league

11 Section 2: coming of independence
that came together for defense against Native Americans B. Albany Plan of Union 1. delegates (representatives) from each of the 13 colonies would meet to raise military & naval forces, make war & peace with Native Americans, regulate trade with them, tax, & collect custom duties

12 Section 2: coming of independence
2. proposed by Ben Franklin 3. meets annually C. Stamp Act Congress 1. Stamp Act of had to have a stamp on legal documents, certain business agreements, & on newspapers

13 Section 2: coming of independence
D. Intolerable Acts passed to punish colonists E. 1st Continental Congress met to discuss what to do F. 2nd Continental Congress met & actually took action

14 Section 2: coming of independence
II. The Declaration of Independence A fighting broke out between Great Britain and the colonists. B Continental Congress met in Philadelphia; established a committee to draft the DOI C. Most of it written by Jefferson

15 Section 2: coming of independence
D. Believed that the power of the government comes from the consent of the governed E. If a government ignores the will of the people, the people have a legitimate right to change the government F. Basic human rights- life, liberty, & the pursuit of happiness

16 Section 3: The Critical Period
CHAPTER 2: GOVERNMENT Section 3: The Critical Period

17 Section 3: the Critical Period
I. The Articles of Confederation A. original plan of gov. B. confederation- loose association of states C. did not want a strong central gov. D. one legislative body -the Congress E. wanted to preserve states’ .

18 Section 3: the Critical Period
sovereignty (absolute power) F. Did not want to establish a national court system to interpret the laws & to punish lawbreakers II. Weaknesses of the Confederation A. Congress had trouble passing laws because 9 out of 13 states was needed to pass important measures

19 Section 3: the Critical period
B. No officials to ensure that the laws passed by Congress were carried out. C. There were no means of interpreting the laws or judging those who broke them. D. Changes in the Articles required the unanimous vote of all 13 states.

20 Section 3: The Critical period
E. the Congress lacked the power to collect taxes 1. Congress could not pay the country’s debts 2. could not pay the soldiers who had fought in the Revolutionary War F. could not control trade between the states or with foreign nations

21 Section 3: the critical Period
G. no stable national currency or banking system III. Need for Change A. main problem with the AOC- did not give the national government enough power to operate effectively B. citizens lacked a national identity C meeting held to strengthen the AOC

22 CHAPTER 2:origins of american government
Section 4: Creating the constitution

23 Section 4: Creating the Constitution
Framers A. 12 states choose 74 delegates; only showed up B. Ben Franklin was the oldest 81 C. Independence Hall in Philadelphia, PA D. George Washington President of the Philadelphia Convention

24 Section 4: Creating the Constitution
II. Secret Meetings A. agreed to hold the meeting secret so that delegates could speak freely B. James Madison kept a journal of the proceedings of each meeting III. Writing the Constitution A. established federalism 1. divides power b/w national & state gov

25 Section 4: Creating the Constitution
IV. The Virginia Plan A. Madison plan B. 3 branches of gov- legislative, executive, & judicial C. Congress bicameral D. representation based on $ or population E. HOR chosen by popular vote F. Senate chosen by state legislatures

26 Section 4: Creating the Constitution
V. The New Jersey Plan A. proposed a unicameral legislature B. states equally represented C. federal executive of more than one person VI. The Connecticut Compromise A. aka the Great Compromise

27 Section 4: Creating the Constitution
B. agreed to a bicameral gov. C. the Senate was based on equal representation D. the House was based on population VII. The 3/5 Compromise A. should slaves be counted as people for population & representation? B. slaves counted as 3/5 a person

28 Section 4: Creating the Constitution
C. regulate trade D. set and collect taxes VIII. Federalists & Antifederalists A. Federalists supported a strong national government B. leading Federalists- John Jay, James Madison, & Alexander Hamilton C. Antifederalists opposed the Cons.

29 Section 4: Creating the Constitution
D. Key antifederalists- Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams, and John Hancock IX. Ratification A. 1st to ratify was Delaware B. 9th to ratify was New Hampshire C. 10th state- Virginia D. 11th state- New York

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