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Chapter 2:Origins of American government Section 1: Our political beginnings.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2:Origins of American government Section 1: Our political beginnings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2:Origins of American government Section 1: Our political beginnings

2 I.Basic concepts of government A. ordered government- 1. need orderly regulation of their relationships w/ one another 2. still have sheriff, coroner, assessor, justice of the peace, grand jury, counties, & townships

3 B. Limited Government 1. government is not all powerful 2. idea planted in the land of England C. Representative Government 1. gov. should serve the will of the people 2. people should have a voice in gov Section 1: Our political beginnings

4 II. Landmark English Documents A. Magna Carta 1. King John, Runnymede in 1215 2. trial by jury 3. due process of law 4. did away with absolute power 5. Parliament protected Section 1:Our political beginnings

5 B. The Petition of Right 1. further limited the king’s power 2. no quartering of soldiers 3. no longer punish or imprison people w/o trial by jury of peers/ law of land 4. no martial law during peacetime C. English Bill of Rights Section 1: Our political beginnings

6 1. 1688 Glorious Revolution 2. free elections for Parliament 3. no standing army in peacetime (unless Parliament said so). 4. right to a fair trial 5. no excessive bail 6. no cruel and unusual punishment Section 1: Our political Beginnings

7 III. The English Colonies A. Royal colonies 1. direct control by the crown 2. controlled by governor 3. bicameral rule- 2 house B. Proprietary colonies 1. established with land grants Section 1:Our political Beginnings

8 2. unicameral-one house C. Charter colonies 1. self-governing 2. given charter to operate Section 1:Our political Beginnings

9 CHAPTER 2:origins of american government Section 2:the coming of independence

10 I.Britain’s Colonial Policies A. controlled by GB 3,000 miles away B. power of purse C. paid few taxes D. did not want the royal gov. meddling in their local affairs II.Growing colonial unity A. New England Confederation- league Section 2: coming of independence

11 that came together for defense against Native Americans B. Albany Plan of Union 1. delegates (representatives) from each of the 13 colonies would meet to raise military & naval forces, make war & peace with Native Americans, regulate trade with them, tax, & collect custom duties Section 2: coming of independence

12 2. proposed by Ben Franklin 3. meets annually C.Stamp Act Congress 1. Stamp Act of 1765 2. had to have a stamp on legal documents, certain business agreements, & on newspapers Section 2: coming of independence

13 D. Intolerable Acts passed to punish colonists E. 1 st Continental Congress met to discuss what to do F. 2 nd Continental Congress met & actually took action Section 2: coming of independence

14 II. The Declaration of Independence A. 1775- fighting broke out between Great Britain and the colonists. B. 1776- Continental Congress met in Philadelphia; established a committee to draft the DOI C. Most of it written by Jefferson Section 2: coming of independence

15 D.Believed that the power of the government comes from the consent of the governed E.If a government ignores the will of the people, the people have a legitimate right to change the government F. Basic human rights- life, liberty, & the pursuit of happiness Section 2: coming of independence

16 Section 3: The Critical Period CHAPTER 2: GOVERNMENT

17 I.The Articles of Confederation A. original plan of gov. B. confederation- loose association of states C. did not want a strong central gov. D. one legislative body -the Congress E. wanted to preserve states’ Section 3: the Critical Period.

18 sovereignty (absolute power) F. Did not want to establish a national court system to interpret the laws & to punish lawbreakers II. Weaknesses of the Confederation A. Congress had trouble passing laws because 9 out of 13 states was needed to pass important measures Section 3: the Critical Period

19 B.No officials to ensure that the laws passed by Congress were carried out. C.There were no means of interpreting the laws or judging those who broke them. D.Changes in the Articles required the unanimous vote of all 13 states. Section 3: the Critical period

20 E.the Congress lacked the power to collect taxes 1.Congress could not pay the country’s debts 2.could not pay the soldiers who had fought in the Revolutionary War F.could not control trade between the states or with foreign nations Section 3: The Critical period

21 stable national currency or banking system III.Need for Change A.main problem with the AOC- did not give the national government enough power to operate effectively B.citizens lacked a national identity C.1787- meeting held to strengthen the AOC Section 3: the critical Period

22 CHAPTER 2:origins of american government Section 4: Creating the constitution

23 I.Framers A. 12 states choose 74 delegates; only 55 showed up B. Ben Franklin was the oldest 81 C. Independence Hall in Philadelphia, PA D. George Washington President of the Philadelphia Convention Section 4: Creating the Constitution

24 II. Secret Meetings A. agreed to hold the meeting secret so that delegates could speak freely B. James Madison kept a journal of the proceedings of each meeting III. Writing the Constitution A. established federalism 1. divides power b/w national & state gov Section 4: Creating the Constitution

25 IV. The Virginia Plan A. Madison plan B. 3 branches of gov- legislative, executive, & judicial C. Congress bicameral D. representation based on $ or population E. HOR chosen by popular vote F. Senate chosen by state legislatures Section 4: Creating the Constitution

26 V. The New Jersey Plan A. proposed a unicameral legislature B. states equally represented C. federal executive of more than one person VI. The Connecticut Compromise A. aka the Great Compromise Section 4: Creating the Constitution

27 B. agreed to a bicameral gov. C. the Senate was based on equal representation D. the House was based on population VII. The 3/5 Compromise A. should slaves be counted as people for population & representation? B. slaves counted as 3/5 a person Section 4: Creating the Constitution

28 C. regulate trade D. set and collect taxes VIII. Federalists & Antifederalists A. Federalists supported a strong national government B. leading Federalists- John Jay, James Madison, & Alexander Hamilton C. Antifederalists opposed the Cons. Section 4: Creating the Constitution

29 D. Key antifederalists- Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams, and John Hancock IX.Ratification A. 1 st to ratify was Delaware B. 9 th to ratify was New Hampshire C. 10 th state- Virginia D. 11 th state- New York Section 4: Creating the Constitution

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