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 Gzhemnido  Gokmuskegnon  Mamogosnan  Spirits of the directions All designed to honor the multiple expressions of who the Creator is and the evidence.

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Presentation on theme: " Gzhemnido  Gokmuskegnon  Mamogosnan  Spirits of the directions All designed to honor the multiple expressions of who the Creator is and the evidence."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Gzhemnido  Gokmuskegnon  Mamogosnan  Spirits of the directions All designed to honor the multiple expressions of who the Creator is and the evidence of the power of Creation

3 We had: Families, clans, towns and cities, tribes and nations Clan ceremonies Seasonal celebrations Women’s ceremonies, men’s ceremonies Celebrations of birth, marriage, childbirth Healing ceremonies and rituals Burial rituals and Ghost feasts

4 The Potawatomi language was shared with Odawa, Ochibwe: Three Fires Confederacy We had religious language, diplomatic language, language of the women and language of the men We had language that children spoke, language that elders used, and language used with other tribes/nations Miami, Lenape, Shawnee, Wea, tribes of the Illinois Confederacy

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7 We had language for: Lakes, rivers, mountains, towns, regions; a language related to our sacred geography That geographic language was tied to our religious and sacred language We understood the world to be a sacred place, a gift from Gzhemnido and in our language were constant reminders of those gifts

8 Clan language for example: Chigwe Dodem Chigwe dodem: Strikes the earth people, Language related to clan ceremonies Related to the weather Related to the sacred geography of the Thunder Clan responsbilities

9 Mko Dodem: Bear Clan language Mko: related to “digging with paws Mko Dodem knew the medicines and properties of the earth Mandozhit: “Bear Walker” language of dreams of visions Duties included hunting for rogue bears, knowing the medicines and foods of the woods Knowing the bears: Natural scientists

10  Earth Sky Cycle Ceremonies  Center of the world ceremonies  Planting ceremonies  Harvest ceremonies  Daily offerings to the sunrise/moon cycle

11  Earth Sky Cycle Ceremonies  Center of the world ceremonies  Planting ceremonies  Harvest ceremonies  Daily offerings to the sunrise/moon cycle  Life cycle rituals:  Birth, puberty, marriage, childbirth, healings and Death  Puberty, menses and childbirth ritual locations are secret/sacred

12  Kikyago: Young girl, innocence, purity, special ceremonial role, Mnokmek-Spring  Qua: Mature or fecund woman: Nibnek: Spiritual growth, fertility, mother, wife  Nokmis: Grandmother; teacher, healer, keeper of the traditions; Dgagwek mine Bbomgek-Fall and Winter  Gogmuskegnon mine Sukmukwe; the everchanging aspects of the Earth

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14  Indians are Savages, Redskins, Primitive.  Primarily male images  “God worship” is to “Great Spirit.”  Ceremonies and dances are domain of the male priests  Economics based in male roles: hunting, fishing, bows/arrows and spears

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16  Women were passive participants in the culture  There were no women religious or political leaders  Native women were beasts of burden and secondary to economics  High god was male figure “Great Spirit,” nothing to do with the feminine

17  Hunters supplied a small percentage of the food, 15-20%  Potawatomi Indian society was agricultural  Farms and gathering lands were owned by women  Most Indian societies were matriarchal, matrilineal, and matri-local  Should be Gatherer-Hunters

18  “The United States flag, carried by a dragoon; then one of the principal officers, next the staff baggage carts, then the carriage, which during the whole trip was kept for the use of the Indian chiefs; then one or two chiefs on horseback led a line of 250 or 300 horses ridden by men, women, children singled file, after the manner of savages. On the flanks of the line at equal distance from each other were the dragoons and volunteers, hastening the stragglers, often with severe gestures and bitter words. After this cavalry came a file of 40 baggage wagons filled with luggage and Indians. The sick were lying in them, rudely jolted, under a canvas which, far from protecting them from the dust and heat, only deprived them of air, for they were as if buried under this burning canopy - several died thus.”  Father B. Pettit, September 1838

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20 Christian Male High God Male Creative Powers Nature to be feared and subdued Celibacy is the only real spiritual path Formulaic prayers and rituals Indian/Potawatomi Female Creative force Natural world is the source of power Sexuality/fertility is a celebration of life Spontaneous prayers and rituals

21  Among the Potawatomi, primarily Jesuits and Benedictines  Conversion of Indians will lead to the Second Coming of Jesus  Colonial settlements to support missions  Breakdown traditional society  Sacred language is no longer Podwewadmi mowen but Latin, French or English  God does not hear prayers in Potawatomi

22  “Despite the innumerable lamentations, apologies and justifications, there can be no serious denial that the mission system in its economics was built upon forced labor.” Sherbourne F. Cook  “it is the practice to imprison them for a few days and then allow them to breathe a little fresh air...after which they are again shut up, and thus continue to be incarcerated until they declare their readiness to renounce the religion of their forefathers.” Captain F. Beechey, 1827

23  “it is a strange truth that a man shall generally find more free entertainment and refreshing among these barbarians, than amongst thousands that call themselves Christians." Roger Williams: 1643  “Clearly the Word of God was something these people needed if they were to stop worshiping creation and false gods, and learn to worship the true Creator.” Rev. Craig Lampe, 2005

24  Hail Mary, full of grace. Blessed art though among women and blessed is the fruit of they womb, Jesus. Hail Mary, Mother of God pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death,

25 8] Juwenitakosig pániteë'djik; KijeMenniton okuwapimauwan. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. 8] Juwenitakosig pániteë'djik; KijeMenniton okuwapimauwan. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. [9] Juwentakosig tokam pim[i]tisídjig [2] KijeMennito onitchanissan kuim[]wak[3]. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. [9] Juwentakosig tokam pim[i]tisídjig [2] KijeMennito onitchanissan kuim[]wak[3]. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. [10] Juwenitakosig nênikadjìidjik ikimìnojuwêpisauwat; okumauwìn Wakwig okutaiánauwa. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. [10] Juwenitakosig nênikadjìidjik ikimìnojuwêpisauwat; okumauwìn Wakwig okutaiánauwa. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. [11] Kijuwenìtakosím, pì metchitejimìkoyég, pitch kakatchiïkoy~eg mòtch pìnichimìkoyèk Nin otchi. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. [11] Kijuwenìtakosím, pì metchitejimìkoyég, pitch kakatchiïkoy~eg mòtch pìnichimìkoyèk Nin otchi. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. [12] papinêwmòg, ketchi papìn[êa]móg, kitchi mitchê`ch kikutipamákóm Wakwíg: nowa iw kitotakowan kanikanikikentakúk keïcha." Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. [12] papinêwmòg, ketchi papìn[êa]móg, kitchi mitchê`ch kikutipamákóm Wakwíg: nowa iw kitotakowan kanikanikikentakúk keïcha." Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.

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28  Culture/religion/language are tied together, they are inseparable  Must hold the Catholic Church accountable for culture and language loss  Recognize the continuing contributions of Indian people to world culture  Hand down to our children and grandchildren more than we received

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