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William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc

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1 William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc
Lesson 11-7 Horrible Histories – The Measly Middle Ages WS - Weaponry of the Middle Ages 1

2 TN SPI Describe ways in which individuals can change groups (William of Normandy, King John) Recognize the impact of individuals on world history (William the Conqueror, Joan of Arc) Identify the development of written laws (Magna Carta) 2

3 William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc

4 Birth of Nation-States
Feudalism was based on a patchwork of kingdoms ruled by kings and lords. Over time, kings became more powerful and large areas of Europe united under one ruler; leading to the end of feudalism. During the 1100s these small kingdoms gave birth to nation-states; a strong central government with a single ruler – the monarch or king. Kingdoms grew larger with the royal marriage of two rulers, and Christianity continued to influence daily life. 4

5 William the Conqueror During the AD 900s, the Vikings conquered part of western France. The region became known as Normandy. By AD 1000s, a Viking descendant named William ruled the land. William, king of Normandy, was also a cousin of King Edward of England.

6 King Edward of England When Edward died, William believed he should be king of England. In 1066, William along with his army of knights crossed the English Channel and landed in England. It was there where he fought the Battle of Hastings. William became known as William the Conqueror.

7 Accomplishments of William
Ruler of Normandy (France) Invaded England in 1066 and declared himself king of England. Battle of Hastings Set up a system of Feudalism in England giving large land grants to the knights who helped him in battle Took the first census in Europe since Roman times – called the Domesday Book. A count of people, manors, and animals

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9 William the Conqueror King William spent much of his time crushing revolts against him. He proved himself a strong ruler who dominated his nobles. William died at the age of 50 when his horse fell and crushed him. The kings who followed him – Henry I and Henry II – further increased the power of the king. King John, the son of Henry II, would soon face the anger of English nobles. 9

10 England English Channel France 10

11 King John Angers the Nobles
John, the son of Henry II, became king of England in 1199. He quickly increased his wealth and power. He heavily taxed the citizens. He jailed his enemies unjustly without a trial. He seized Church property. He tried to block the pope’s choice for bishop of England. 11

12 The Magna Carta On June 15, 1215, two-thousand angry nobles gathered and presented King John with a list of demands. Called the Magna Carta, John was forced to sign the document limiting the power of the king. The Magna Carta created the “Great Council” of lords and clergy who were consulted before the king could make decisions. The Great Council eventually became the Parliament, a law making legislature and unified England into a nation. 12

13 Accomplishments of King John
King John signed (forced) the Magna Carta. This document: Limited the power of the king/monarch Established that people have rights and the power of the government should be limited Created a Great Council or Parliament The king could no longer collect taxes unless Parliament agreed Habeas corpus – could not imprison indefinitely without a trial

14 Hundred Years’ War Despite the growth of nation-states, Western Europe was not at peace. The Hundred Years’ War was fought between England and France from 1337 to 1453. 14

15 Causes of the War Several events caused the war:
Royal marriages allowed English kings to govern and control French lands. England and France both wanted control of the English Channel. Each nation wanted to control trade in the region and the wealth that it brought. 15

16 Joan of Arc became one of France’s greatest heroes.
was the daughter of a peasant farmer. was very religious and believed she saw heavenly visions. dressed as a man, cut her hair short and convinced Charles, heir to the French throne, that God called her to lead the French forces at the Battle of Orleans. was given armor, attendants, horses, and a special banner to carry into battle.

17 The War Drags On As the war went on, fought by one king and then another, England won most of the battles. The tide turned in 1429 when a peasant girl called Joan of Arc took charge of the French forces at the Battle of Orleans. Under Joan’s command, the French defeated the English and led her forces to victory in other battles. 17

18 The War Drags On In 1430 Joan of taken prisoner and accused of witchcraft and wearing men’s clothes. She was convicted and burned at the stake. Joan became a martyr, and her death inspired the French to win many victories. By 1453, the English had been driven from most of France. France was on its way to becoming a strong, united nation. 18

19 Accomplishments of Joan
Had a vision to save the nation of France Led the French against an invasion by England (Hundred Years’ War) Defeated the English army at the Battle of Orleans Was tried by the English for witchcraft and was executed – burned at the stake

20 Results of the War Kings became more powerful and noble influence declined Modern boundaries of England and France were set and unified both into separate nations Feudalism ended England began to look to distant lands for trade and conquest (increase wealth, colonies, spread Christian beliefs) 20

21 New Weapons Two new weapons were used on the battlefield during the Hundred Years’ War: Longbow - This weapon was generally between four to six feet in length and could hurl arrows with uncanny accuracy and speed. Crossbow - The Medieval crossbow was reintroduced to England by William the Conqueror and the Normans in The crossbow range was 350 – 400 yards but could only be shot at a rate of 2 bolts per minute. Cannon - Castles could not withstand the firepower of cannons and armored knights became less valuable in battle. (gunpowder from China reached Europe in the 1300s) 21


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