Presentation on theme: "William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc"— Presentation transcript:
1William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc Lesson 11-7Horrible Histories – The Measly Middle AgesWS - Weaponry of the Middle Ages1
2TN SPIDescribe ways in which individuals can change groups (William of Normandy, King John)Recognize the impact of individuals on world history (William the Conqueror, Joan of Arc)Identify the development of written laws (Magna Carta)2
4Birth of Nation-States Feudalism was based on a patchwork of kingdoms ruled by kings and lords.Over time, kings became more powerful and large areas of Europe united under one ruler; leading to the end of feudalism.During the 1100s these small kingdoms gave birth to nation-states; a strong central government with a single ruler – the monarch or king.Kingdoms grew larger with the royal marriage of two rulers, and Christianity continued to influence daily life.4
5William the ConquerorDuring the AD 900s, the Vikings conquered part of western France. The region became known as Normandy.By AD 1000s, a Viking descendant named William ruled the land.William, king of Normandy, was also a cousin of King Edward of England.
6King Edward of EnglandWhen Edward died, William believed he should be king of England.In 1066, William along with his army of knights crossed the English Channel and landed in England.It was there where he fought the Battle of Hastings.William became known as William the Conqueror.
7Accomplishments of William Ruler of Normandy (France)Invaded England in 1066 and declared himself king of England. Battle of HastingsSet up a system of Feudalism in England giving large land grants to the knights who helped him in battleTook the first census in Europe since Roman times – called the Domesday Book.A count of people, manors, and animals
9William the ConquerorKing William spent much of his time crushing revolts against him.He proved himself a strong ruler who dominated his nobles.William died at the age of 50 when his horse fell and crushed him.The kings who followed him – Henry I and Henry II – further increased the power of the king.King John, the son of Henry II, would soon face the anger of English nobles.9
11King John Angers the Nobles John, the son of Henry II, became king of England in 1199.He quickly increased his wealth and power.He heavily taxed the citizens.He jailed his enemies unjustly without a trial.He seized Church property.He tried to block the pope’s choice for bishop of England.11
12The Magna CartaOn June 15, 1215, two-thousand angry nobles gathered and presented King John with a list of demands.Called the Magna Carta, John was forced to sign the document limiting the power of the king.The Magna Carta created the “Great Council” of lords and clergy who were consulted before the king could make decisions.The Great Council eventually became the Parliament, a law making legislature and unified England into a nation.12
13Accomplishments of King John King John signed (forced) the Magna Carta.This document:Limited the power of the king/monarchEstablished that people have rights and the power of the government should be limitedCreated a Great Council or ParliamentThe king could no longer collect taxes unless Parliament agreedHabeas corpus – could not imprison indefinitely without a trial
14Hundred Years’ WarDespite the growth of nation-states, Western Europe was not at peace.The Hundred Years’ War was fought between England and France from 1337 to 1453.14
15Causes of the War Several events caused the war: Royal marriages allowed English kings to govern and control French lands.England and France both wanted control of the English Channel.Each nation wanted to control trade in the region and the wealth that it brought.15
16Joan of Arc became one of France’s greatest heroes. was the daughter of a peasant farmer.was very religious and believed she saw heavenly visions.dressed as a man, cut her hair short and convinced Charles, heir to the French throne, that God called her to lead the French forces at the Battle of Orleans.was given armor, attendants, horses, and a special banner to carry into battle.
17The War Drags OnAs the war went on, fought by one king and then another, England won most of the battles.The tide turned in 1429 when a peasant girl called Joan of Arc took charge of the French forces at the Battle of Orleans.Under Joan’s command, the French defeated the English and led her forces to victory in other battles.17
18The War Drags OnIn 1430 Joan of taken prisoner and accused of witchcraft and wearing men’s clothes.She was convicted and burned at the stake.Joan became a martyr, and her death inspired the French to win many victories.By 1453, the English had been driven from most of France.France was on its way to becoming a strong, united nation.18
19Accomplishments of Joan Had a vision to save the nation of FranceLed the French against an invasion by England (Hundred Years’ War)Defeated the English army at the Battle of OrleansWas tried by the English for witchcraft and was executed – burned at the stake
20Results of the WarKings became more powerful and noble influence declinedModern boundaries of England and France were set and unified both into separate nationsFeudalism endedEngland began to look to distant lands for trade and conquest (increase wealth, colonies, spread Christian beliefs)20
21New WeaponsTwo new weapons were used on the battlefield during the Hundred Years’ War:Longbow - This weapon was generally between four to six feet in length and could hurl arrows with uncanny accuracy and speed.Crossbow - The Medieval crossbow was reintroduced to England by William the Conqueror and the Normans in The crossbow range was 350 – 400 yards but could only be shot at a rate of 2 bolts per minute.Cannon - Castles could not withstand the firepower of cannons and armored knights became less valuable in battle. (gunpowder from China reached Europe in the 1300s)21