2Our Political Beginnings TERMS AND QUESTIONS Chapter 2 Section 1 ordered governmentlimited governmentRepresentative governmentHow did the Magna Carta affect English government?List the three fundamental rights established by the Magna Carta.Why did Charles I have to sign the Petition of Rights?What four ways did the Petition of Rights limit the king’s power?Who had to sign the Bill of Rights and what limits did it place on future monarchs?JamestownCharterWhat was a royal colony and how was the government constructed?Who were the royal colonies?What was a proprietary colony and name these colonies?What was a charter colony and who were they?
3Basic Concepts of Government The English colonists in America brought with them three main concepts:The need for an ordered social system, or government. They created local governments, based on those they had known in England.The idea of limited government, that is, that government should not be all-powerful.The concept of representative government — a government that serves the will of the people.
4THE MAGNA CARTAA group of determined barons forced King John to sign the Magna Carta – the Great Charter – at Runnymede. The barons were seeking protection against heavy handed and arbitrary acts by the king.It included fundamental rights such as trial by jury, due process of law and protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty and property.The Magna Carta established the principle that the power of the monarchy was not absolute.
7THE PETITION OF RIGHTIn 1628 when Charles I asked Parliament for more money in taxes, Parliament refused until he signed the Petition of Right.The Petition of Right limited the king’s power. It demanded that the king no longer imprison or punish people but by the lawful judgment of his peers. It also insisted the king could not impose martial law in time of peace or require homeowners to shelter the king’s troops without their consent. Also no man should be “compelled to make or yield any gift, loan, benevolence, tax, or such like charge, without common consent by act of parliament.”The petition challenged the idea of divine rights of kings, declaring that they must obey the law of the land.
9THE BILL OF RIGHTSIn 1688, the crown was offered to William and Mary of Orange. To prevent abuse of power, 1n 1689, they had to sign a document, the English Bill of Rights.It prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of Parliament, and required that all parliamentary elections be free. It also declared “that the pretended power of suspending the laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without the consent of Parliament is illegal . . .”that the levying money for or to the use of the Crown without grant of Parliament Is illegal . . .that it is the right of the subjects to petition the king and that prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal . . .It also included right to a fair trial, freedom from excessive bail, and from cruel and unusual punishment.
12Important English Documents The way our government works today can be traced to important documents in history:
13THE ENGLISH COLONIESThe 13 colonies were established separately, over the span of some 125 years.Virginia – first colony established in North America at Jamestown in 1607.Georgia was the last to be formed, with the settlement of Savannah in 1733.Charter – each colony was established on a written grant of authority from the king.
14The Thirteen ColoniesThere were three types of colonies in North America: royal, proprietary, and charter.The royal colonies were ruled directly by the English monarchy. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and GeorgiaThe king named a governor as the chief executive, a council, also named by the king, served an advisory body to the governor.The King granted land to people in North America, who then formed proprietary colonies. Maryland, Pennsylvania, and DelawareThe charter colonies were mostly self-governed, and their charters were granted to the colonists. Connecticut and Rhode Island
18The Proprietary Colonies bicameral – two house legislature was elected by those property owners qualified to vote.Unicameral – one-house, the governor’s council did not act as one house of the legislature.
21Section 1 Assessment1. All of the following are basic concepts of government brought to the colonies by English settlers EXCEPT(a) the need for limited government.(b) the need for a representative government.(c) the need for an autocratic government.(d) the need for an ordered social system.2. Which of the following was not one of the rights granted in the Magna Carta?(a) the right to private property.(b) the right to a trial by jury.(c) the right to freedom of religion.(d) the right to undergo due process of the law.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
22Section 1 Assessment1. All of the following are basic concepts of government brought to the colonies by English settlers EXCEPT(a) the need for limited government.(b) the need for a representative government.(c) the need for an autocratic government.(d) the need for an ordered social system.2. Which of the following was not one of the rights granted in the Magna Carta?(a) the right to private property.(b) the right to a trial by jury.(c) the right to freedom of religion.(d) the right to undergo due process of the law.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
23The Coming of Independence QUESTIONS AND TERMS Chapter 2 Section 2 Who controlled the colonies?How had the colonies become federal.How did George III treat the colonies?ConfederationWho was the New England Confederation?What was the Albany Plan of Union?Declaration of Rights and GrievancesIntolerable ActsSeptember 5, 1774May 10, 1775Articles of ConfederationWhat did the Declaration of Independence state?Who signed the Declaration of Independence?Who adopted the first state constitutions and why did all of the colonies adopt?What common features did the State constitutions share?
24The Declaration of Independence “We must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately.”- Benjamin Franklin
25British Colonial Policies Until the mid-1700s, the colonies were allowed a great deal of freedom in their governments by the English monarchy. They were controlled largely through the Privy Council and the Board of Trade in London. In theory they were governed in all matters from London, but they were 3,000 miles away and it took nearly two months to sail one way.The relationship between Britain and the colonies had become federal, the central government in London was responsible for colonial defense and for foreign affairs, provided a uniform system of money and credit and a common market for colonial trade.
26BRITISH COLONIAL POLICIES In 1760, King George III imposed new taxes and laws on the colonists. Restrictive trading acts were expanded and enforced. New taxes were imposed, mostly to support British troops in North America. The colonist protested because of “taxation without representation.” The colonists considered themselves British subject but refused to accept Parliament’s claim that it had a rights to control their local affairs.The colonists started a confederation, proposed an annual congress, and began to rebel.
27Growing Colonial Unity Early AttemptsIn 1643, several New England settlements formed the New England Confederation. Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven and ConnecticutA confederation is a joining of several groups for a common purpose.The Albany PlanIn 1754, Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union, in which an annual congress of delegates (representatives) from each of the 13 colonies would be formed. This plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown.The Stamp Act CongressIn 1765, a group of colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York.These delegates prepared the Declaration of Rights and Grievances against British policies and sent it to the king. This was the first time that a large number of colonies joined to oppose the British government. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but new laws were passed and new policies were made to tie the colonies closer to London.
28THE STAMP ACT CONGRESSBoycott – is a refusal to buy or sell certain products or services.March 5, 1770 – British troops in Boston fired on a jeering crowd, killing 5, in what was to become the Boston Massacre.Boston Tea Party – December 16, 1773 – colonist disguised as Indians dumped cargo into the sea to protest British control of the tea trade.
29The Continental Congresses First Continental CongressIntolerable Acts – set of laws passed to punish the colonist for the troubles in Boston and elsewhere.Delegates from every colony except Georgia met in Philadelphia on September 5, The colonists sent a Declaration of Rights to King George III protesting Britain’s colonial policies.The delegates urged each of the colonies to refuse all trade with England until British tax and trade regulations were repealed, or recalled.
31THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, The battles of Lexington and Concord had been fought on April 19.Each colony sent representatives. John Hancock was chosen president of the Congress and George Washington was appointed commander and chief.The Second Continental Congress was the nation’s first national government but it had no constitutional base.Articles of Confederation – July 1776 to March 1781, did everything any government would do.
32THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence. It announces the independence of the United States.56 men signed the Declaration.Between 1776 and 1777, most of the States adopted constitutions – bodies of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures and processes of their governments - instead of charters.New Hampshire adopted a constitution to replace its royal charter.Common Features of the states constitutions -Popular sovereignty – government can exist only with the consent of the governed.Limited governmentCivil rights and libertiesSeparation of powersChecks and balances
35Common Features of State Constitutions Civil Rights and LibertiesPopular SovereigntyLimited GovernmentSeparation of Powers and Checks and BalancesThe principle of popular sovereignty was the basis for every new State constitution. That principle says that government can exist and function only with the consent of the governed. The people hold power and the people are sovereign.The concept of limited government was a major feature of each State constitution. The powers delegated to government were granted reluctantly and hedged with many restrictions.In every State it was made clear that the sovereign people held certain rights that the government must respect at all times. Seven of the new constitutions contained a bill of rights, setting out the “unalienable rights” held by the people.The powers granted to the new State governments were purposely divided among three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Each branch was given powers with which to check (restrain the actions of) the other branches of the government.
38Section 2 Assessment 1. The Declaration of Independence was signed in (b) 1776.(c) 1781.(d) 1787.2. The Stamp Act of 1765 was a law enacted by the British that(a) increased the colonists’ taxes.(b) was repealed by the Magna Carta.(c) the colonists ratified one year later.(d) raised the price of postage stamps by two cents.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
39Section 2 Assessment 1. The Declaration of Independence was signed in (b) 1776.(c) 1781.(d) 1787.2. The Stamp Act of 1765 was a law enacted by the British that(a) increased the colonists’ taxes.(b) was repealed by the Magna Carta.(c) the colonists ratified one year later.(d) raised the price of postage stamps by two cents.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
40The Critical Period QUESTIONS AND TERMS Chapter 2 Section 3 RatificationHow was the government in the Articles of Confederation set up?Presiding OfficerList the 10 powers granted to Congress under the Articles of Confederation.What six areas did the States pledge to obey under the Articles and Acts of Congress?List the four weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation,October 19, 1781What four problems occurred after the signing of the Treaty of Paris?Who met for the conference in Alexandria, Virginia and what was the meeting for?How many representatives met in Annapolis, Maryland and what did they decide to do?
42The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation established “a firm league of friendship” among the States. November 15, 1777, the delegates approved a plan of government. The Articles did not go into effect immediately. The 13 States needed to ratify the Articles first. It was not formally ratified until March 3, 1781.A Congress was the sole body created. It was unicameral, made up of delegates chosen yearly by the States in whatever way their legislatures might direct. Each State had one vote in Congress. The Articles established no executive or judicial branch. Congress would chose one of its members as its president. Presiding officer would be the chair of Congress but not the president of the United States.
44POWERS OF CONGRESS Several important powers were given to Congress. 1. It could make war and peace.2. Send and receive ambassadors3. Make treaties4. Borrow money5. Establish post offices6. Build a navy7. Rise an army by asking the States for troops8. Fix uniform standards of weights and measures9. Settle disputes among the States
45STATE OBLIGATIONSStates pledged to obey the Articles and acts of the Congress.They would provide the funds and troops requested by the CongressTreat citizens of other States fairly and equally with their ownGive full faith and credit to the public acts, record, and the judicial proceedings of every other StateSurrender fugitives from justice to one anotherSubmit their dispute to Congress for settlementAllow open travel and trade between and among the States.
46Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Congress powerless to lay and collect taxes or duties. It could raise money only by borrowing and by asking the States for funds.Congress powerless to regulate foreign and interstate commerce. This became one of the major factors that led to the adoption of the Constitution.No executive to enforce acts of Congress. States did not have to obey the Articles of Confederation or the laws that it made. Congress could exercise the powers only with the consent of 9 of the 13 state delegations.The Articles themselves could only be changed with the consent of all the States.
48THE CRITICAL PERIOD, THE 1780S The Revolutionary War ended on October 19, We signed the Treaty of Paris in Problems soon surfaced because of the Articles of Confederation.The states bickered among themselves and grew increasingly jealous and suspicious of one another.Several of the states made agreements with foreign governments without the approval of the National Government, even though it was forbidden by the Articles.The States taxed one another’s goods and even banned some trade. They printed their own money with little backing.Shay’s Rebellion was caused because many of the farmers were losing their land and possessions. Daniel Shays and other local leaders led an uprising that forced the Supreme Court of Springfield, Massachusetts, to close.
50A NEED FOR A STRONGER GOVERNMENT The Articles had created a government unable to deal with the nation’s troubles. Demand for a stronger government grew and began to take concrete form in 1785.Maryland and Virginia, took the first step in the movement for change. The two States agreed to a conference on their trade problems.Representatives met in Alexandria, Virginia, on March George Washington invited both States to move to his home at Mount Vernon.The negotiations were so successful that on January 21, 1786, the Virginia General Assembly called for a meeting of all the states.
51A Call for a Stronger Government That joint meeting opened at Annapolis, Maryland, on September 11, Turnout was poor with only 5 States showing up.In February 1787, seven States named delegates to a meeting in Philadelphia. Later Congress called upon the States to meet there.
53Section 3 Assessment1. The government set up by the Articles of Confederation had(a) the power to make treaties and build a navy.(b) a bicameral congress.(c) separation of powers.(d) a President to carry out its laws.2. Which of the following was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation?(a) Congress could not make treaties.(b) Congress could not borrow money.(c) The States did not agree to obey the Articles.(d) Congress could not lay or collect taxes or duties.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
54Section 3 Assessment1. The government set up by the Articles of Confederation had(a) the power to make treaties and build a navy.(b) a bicameral congress.(c) separation of powers.(d) a President to carry out its laws.2. Which of the following was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation?(a) Congress could not make treaties.(b) Congress could not borrow money.(c) The States did not agree to obey the Articles.(d) Congress could not lay or collect taxes or duties.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
57Ch 2 Sec 4 Creating the Constitution QUESTIONS AND TERMS FramersHow many States showed up for the convention in Philadelphia, how many were chosen, and how many actually showed up?What was the first item on the agenda for the delegates?What 2 rules of procedure did they adopt?James MadisonWhy was the Philadelphia Convention called?What 5 provisions did the Virginia Plan have?What were their objections to the Virginia Plan?What was agreed to under the Connecticut Compromise?The Three-Fifths Compromise settled what arguments?Who did the Commerce and Trade Compromise benefit and what provisions did it have?What was the purpose of the Committee of Stile and Arrangement?How many men signed the Constitution?
59THE FRAMERSTwelve of the 13 States, sent delegates to Philadelphia, Rhode Island did not attend. 74 delegates were chosen by the legislatures, however only 55 of them actually attended the convention.Framers – the name for the group of delegates that attended the convention.Many of them fought in the Revolution39 had been members of the Continental Congress or the Congress of the Confederation.
60THE FRAMERS8 had served in constitutional conventions in their own States.7 had been State governors8 had signed the Declaration of Independence31 had attended college2 college presidents – 3 professors2 would become President of the United States1 Vice President17 later served in the Senate11 in the House of Representatives
61Benjamin Franklin was the oldest at 81. George Washington was 55. THE FRAMERSThe average age of the delegates was only 42, nearly half were only in their 30s.Benjamin Franklin was the oldest at 81.George Washington was 55.
62Framers of the Constitution Leaders of the Philadelphia ConventionJames Madison was the co-author of the Articles of Confederation.Gouverneur Morris was a lawyer who helped develop the U.S. system of money.Alexander Hamilton was a lawyer who favored a strong central government.George Washington was the successful leader of the Continental Army.Some famous leaders who were NOT at the Philadelphia ConventionPatrick Henry said he “smelt a rat” and refused to attend.Samuel Adams and John Hancock were not selected as delegates by their states.Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine were in Paris.John Adams was on diplomatic missions to England and Holland.
63ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURE They organized on May 25, 1787, electing George Washington president of the convention.May 28th, adopted several rules of procedure. A majority of the States would be needed to conduct business.Each State delegation was to have one vote on all matters, and a majority of the votes cast would carry any proposal.To protect themselves from outside pressure, they adopted a rule of secrecy.William Jackson kept the convention’s journal.The Framers met on 89 of the 116 days from May 25th through their final meeting on September 17th.
65THE VIRGINIA PLANCalled for a new government with three separate branches – legislative, executive and judicialCongress would be bicameralRepresentation would be based upon each State’s population or upon the amount of money they gave to the central government.The House of Representatives would be popularly elected in each State.The Senate would be chosen from a list of persons nominated by the State legislatures.Congress would choose a “National Executive” and a “National Judiciary.
66THE NEW JERSEY PLAN Unicameral Congress With States represented equally.Limited powers to tax and to regulate trade between the States.Called for a federal executive of more than one person.Congress would chose the plural executive and could be removed by a request of a majority of the State’s governors.The “federal judiciary” would be composed of a single “supreme Tribunal,” appointed by the executive.
68Constitutional Compromises The Connecticut CompromiseDelegates agreed on a bicameral Congress, one segment with equal representation for States, and the other with representation proportionate to the States’ populations.The Three-Fifths CompromiseThe Framers decided to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State.The Commerce and Slave Trade CompromiseCongress was forbidden from taxing exported goods, and was not allowed to act on the slave trade for 20 years.
69Influences on and Reactions to the New Constitution The Framers were familiar with the political writings of their time, such as works by Jean Jacques Rousseau and John Locke.They also were seasoned, variously, by the Second Continental Congress, the Articles of Confederation and experiences with their own State governments.ReactionsWhen the Constitution was complete, the Framers’ opinions of their work varied. Some were disappointed, like George Mason of Virginia, who opposed the Constitution until his death in 1792.Most agreed with Ben Franklin’s thoughts when he said, “From such an assembly [of fallible men] can a perfect production be expected? It…astonishes me, Sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it does…”
70Section 4 Assessment1. The first national government for the United States was(a) the First Continental Congress.(b) the Second Continental Congress.(c) the Articles of Confederation.(d) the Constitution of the United States.2. The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia involved delegates from each of the following states except(a) Maryland.(b) Rhode Island.(c) New York.(d) Virginia.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
71Section 4 Assessment1. The first national government for the United States was(a) the First Continental Congress.(b) the Second Continental Congress.(c) the Articles of Confederation.(d) the Constitution of the United States.2. The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia involved delegates from each of the following states except(a) Maryland.(b) Rhode Island.(c) New York.(d) Virginia.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
74Ratifying the Constitution Terms and Questions Chapter 2 Section 5 Who were the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists?QuorumWhat did the Federalist believe in?What did the Anti-Federalist believe in?What was irregular about the ratification of the Constitution?What was the Federalist Papers?Where was our first capital?Why did it take so long to certify that George Washington was our first President?
76The Federalists and Anti-Federalists The Constitution was very controversial at first, with some groups supporting it, and others attacking it.Federalists thought that the Articles of Confederation were weak, and argued for the ratification of the Constitution. Their leaders were James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. The Federalists stressed the weaknesses of the Articles. They argued that the their troubles would only stop with a new government based on the new Constitution.Anti-Federalists objected to the Constitution for many reasons, including the strong central government and the lack of a bill of rights and the lack of mentioning God. Their leaders were Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, John Hancock and Samuel Adams.
78The Constitution is Ratified Nine States ratified the Constitution by June 21, 1788, but the new government needed the ratification of the large States of New York and Virginia.Great debates were held in both States, with Virginia ratifying the Constitution June 25, 1788.New York’s ratification was hard fought. Supporters of the Constitution published a series of essays known as The Federalist.
80THE FEDERALIST PAPERSA narrow vote in the New York convention brought the number of States to 11.The Federalist – was a collection of 85 essays supporting the Constitution written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison an John Jay. They were first published as letters to the people in various newspapers and were later put in book form.
81Inaugurating the Government On September 13, 1788, with 11 of the 13 States “under the federal roof,” the Congress of the Congress of the Confederation paved the way for the successor.They chose New York as the temporary capital.They chose the first Wednesday in February as the date on which new electors would vote, and the first Wednesday in March as the date for the inauguration of the new government. The new Congress met for the first time on March 4, 1789 in Federal Hall, on Wall Street.Congress finally attained a quorum (majority) on April 6 and counted the electoral votes. Congress found that George Washington had been unanimously elected President. He was inaugurated on April 30.
84Section 5 Assessment1. The debate over the ratification of the Constitution was won by the(a) Anti-Federalists.(b) Whigs.(c) Federalists.(d) Tories.2. The temporary capital of the United States where Congress met in 1789 was(a) Washington, D.C.(b) Philadelphia.(c) New York.(d) Mount Vernon.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!
85Section 5 Assessment1. The debate over the ratification of the Constitution was won by the(a) Anti-Federalists.(b) Whigs.(c) Federalists.(d) Tories.2. The temporary capital of the United States where Congress met in 1789 was(a) Washington, D.C.(b) Philadelphia.(c) New York.(d) Mount Vernon.Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this chapter? Click Here!