Presentation on theme: "Historical Roots of American Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Historical Roots of American Government Chapter 2Historical Roots of American Government
2 Basic Concepts of Government Name some basic human rights and freedoms.Where did you get your ideas?We are going to discuss where Americans got their ideas about people’s political rights and freedoms.
3 3 Characteristics of Government 1. Ordered Gov.Colonist knew orderly regulation was needed; as in England, they created local governments2. Limited Gov.Government should not be all powerful and has limits to what it can do; individuals have guaranteed rights3. Representative Gov.Government should serve the will of the people; should represent the people’s best interests; people need a voice (elect representatives)
4 Leading Up to the Declaration The Magna Carta (1215)The basic notions of ordered government, of limited government, and of representative government can be traced to several landmark document in English history: The Magna Carta, The Petition of Right and The Bill of Rights..
6 Leading Up to the Declaration The Magna Carta (1215)First document to ever limit the power of a kingGuaranteed some rights of citizens – king could not punish someone without jury trialThe Magna Carta included fundamental rights such as trial by jury and due process of law—protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property.The next significant document was the English Bill of Rights which prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of Parliament, and required elections be fee. It also included such guarantees as the right to a fair trial, and freedom from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment.
7 Petition of Right Limits the king’s power King could no longer imprison or punish any person but by the lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the landking could not require homeowners to shelter the troopsking must also obey law of the land
8 The English Bill of Rights Prohibited a standing army in peacetimerequired elections be freetaxing without government permission is not allowedguarantees the right to a fair trialfreedom from excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment
9 The English ColoniesThe 13 colonies were established on the basis of a charter (a written grant of authority from the king)1. Royal Colonies – under direct control of the Crown. Laws passed through the Crown2. Proprietary Colonies - these colonies were organized by a proprietor (person who the king gave the land). Laws passed through the Crown3. The Charter Colonies – self-governing (if other colonies were set up this way, the Revolution might never have occurred)
10 Leading Up to the Declaration John Locke’s 2nd Treatise on GovernmentNatural Rights – men had rights given to them by God before governments were ever created.John Locke
11 Leading Up to the Declaration Man’s natural rights are:LIFELIBERTYPROPERTYGovernment’s purpose is to protect these, not take them away!John Locke
12 Britain Messes with the Colonies The Stamp Act 1765Required every published piece of paper to receive a British stamp of approval, and pay a tax with itTrue intention was likely to stop colonists from publishing essays and newspapers critical of Britain’s governmentCh 2 section 2
13 Colonial Unity Stamp Act Congress (1765) 9 colonies joined together to protest England’s Stamp Act, and England repealed it
14 Colonial Unity First Continental Congress (1774) Trying to repair relationship with Britain even after new law were in effect (we called them Intolerable Acts)Sent a “Declaration of Rights and Grievances” to the king, boycotted trade with EnglandThese actions marked the first time a significant number of the colonies had jointed to oppose the British government.Parliament repealed the stamp act but frictions mounted. New laws were passed and more anger and violence erupted. The Boston Massacre occurred because of a boycott of English goods. Protests multiplied and the famous Boston Tea Party took place.
15 Colonial Unity Second Continental Congress (1775-1781) Trying to defeat BritainConvened in the middle of the Revolutionary WarOur nation’s first national government
16 Colonial Unity Second Continental Congress (1775) Elected George Washington Commander-in-Chief of the ArmySecond Continental Congress was in effect from Declaration of Independence 1776 to Article of Confederation 1781
17 The Declaration of Independence July 4th, 1776by Thomas Jefferson
18 Jefferson Explains the Trouble With Writing This Thing:
19 Fundamentals of the Declaration Men have inalienable natural rightsGovernments exist by the consent of the governedAbusive governments can be replaced
20 State ConstitutionsMany states adopted written constitutions – bodies of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of their government.Common features include:popular sovereigntylimited governmentcivil rights and libertiesseparation of powers and checks and balances
21 Our First Government The Articles of Confederation A huge mistake, but a good learning experience
23 The Articles of Confederation Was not a strong national governmentRather, it was a “firm league of friendship” between 13 independent states
24 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation (pg. 45) National Government could not:Collect TaxesRegulate Trade Between StatesCreate a Court SystemUse Troops Without Permission from the States
25 Problems with the Articles As a result:States never sent the government any moneyStates boycotted each other’s goods and currencyStates made trade agreements with foreign countries
26 Features of the Articles Government Legislative Branch (Congress)Unicameral (One House)States could send as many or as few Reps. as they wantedEach state gets 1 vote regardless of number of Reps.Any change to the Articles required approval of all 13 states
27 Features of the Articles Government Executive BranchNo national executive branchAll executive and judicial powers were given to the states
29 The Constitutional Convention May 25th to September 17th, 1787
30 The Constitutional Convention Original purpose was to slightly edit the Articles of ConfederationWhat ended up happening was a secret meeting where the Founding Fathers created a brand new government
32 The Framers Who were the Framers (Writers)? A gathering of 55 of the most brilliant minds in history?Most were in their 30’s and 40’sAll upper class, well educated, white malesMiddle and lower classes, women and racial minorities were not given the opportunity to participateMost famous names : George Washington, James Madison, Ben Franklin, Alexander Hamilton
33 The Framers: Demi-Gods? The Framers are really just men – or “politicians,” evenThey are fighting with one another on every issue, and forming compromises to resolve the fights
34 Mack Daddy James Madison The FramersJames Madison becomes known as the “Father of the Constitution,” as he became the leader of the convention, and did much of the writingMack Daddy James Madison
35 Two Competing Ideas The Virginia Plan The “Big State Plan” 3 Branches – Legislative, Executive, Judicial, each with checks and balances against the othersBicameral legislature with representation based on population alone
36 Two Competing Ideas The New Jersey Plan The “Small State Plan” Unicameral legislature with all states represented equallyExecutive would be three presidents, who chose the Judicial branch
37 Compromises The Connecticut Compromise “The Great Compromise” Bicameral legislature, one house based on population, one on equality
38 How the Great Compromise Works StatePopulation# in House# in SenateCalifornia35 million532Arizona5 million8Wyoming0.5 million1
39 Compromises The 3/5ths Compromise Southern states wanted to count slaves as part of their populations to get more votes in CongressCompromise allowed them to count slaves as 3/5ths of a person in the census*Note* - slaves did NOT get 3/5ths of a vote!
40 Compromises The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Southern states feared that slavery would be banned by more heavily populated Northern states in CongressCompromise prevented Congress from acting on the matter of slave trade for at least 20 years
41 Sources of the Constitution Framers pulled from a number of places to get the final product:Ancient Greece’s Democracy and Rome’s RepublicJohn Locke’s 2nd Treatise on GovernmentCharles de Montesquieu’s ideas about separating the powers of governmentGreat Britain’s government
42 Bicameral Legislature (House and Senate) New ConstitutionBicameral Legislature (House and Senate)Strong Executive (President)Supreme Court SystemFederal GovernmentBritish GovernmentBicameral Legislature (House of Lords and Commons)Strong Executive (King)Royal Court SystemFederal Relationship w/ ColoniesArticles of ConfederationUnicameral LegislatureNo ExecutiveNo Court SystemConfederation of States
43 Ratifying the Constitution Ratify – vote on and passConstitution required that 9 of the 13 states needed to approve it to take effectDid someone say “Rat”ify?
44 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Federalists – favored ratification of the Constitution and a new federal governmentAnti-Federalists - opposed the new Constitution on almost all groundsEspecially wanted to add a bill of rights
45 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Famous Federalists: James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, George WashingtonMadison, Hamilton, and Jay write The Federalist Papers – persuasive essays to explain why the new Constitution can be effective and preserve personal liberty
46 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists Famous Anti-Federalists: Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams, John Hancock