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April 17—Why is it important to try your best on the STAR test?

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Presentation on theme: "April 17—Why is it important to try your best on the STAR test?"— Presentation transcript:

1 April 17—Why is it important to try your best on the STAR test?

2 A Brief History of the Holocaust A Brief History of the Holocaust

3 Key Terms  Lieutenant General Reinhard Heydrich  Nuremburg Laws  Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases  Eugenics  Sinti and Roma  Auschwitz-Birkenau

4 Lecture Outline I.Holocaust A. An Overview II. Summary of the Holocaust A. 1933-1939 1. Jews 2. Handicapped 3. Jehovah’s Witnesses 4. Sinti and Roma 5. Homosexuals B. 1939-1945 1. Poles C.Aftermath of the Holocaust

5 Quotes  “What luck for the rulers that men do not think.”—Adolf Hitler

6 The Plan  On January 20, 1942 fifteen high ranking Nazi Party and German government leaders met at Wannsee district of Berlin to coordinate the carrying out of the “final solution.”  The leader of the meeting was SS Lieutenant General Reinhard Heydrich.  It was estimated that the “Final Solution” would kill 11 million European Jews from more than 20 countries.

7 April 19—Give an example of how you have been discriminated against or an example of discrimination that you witnessed.


9 An Overview  Six weeks before the Wannsee meeting, the Nazis began to murder Jews at Chelmno, an agricultural estate located in a part of Poland annexed to Germany.

10 An Overview  During 1942, trainloads of Jewish men, women, and children were transported from countries all over Europe to the four major killing centers in German-occupied Poland.

11 Summary of the Holocaust 1933-1939--Jews  525,000 Jews, less than 1% of the population, lived in Germany.  In 1933 new German laws forced Jews out of civil service jobs, university and law positions, and other areas of public service.  In April 1933, a boycott of Jewish business was instituted.

12 1933-1939--Jews  In 1935, laws proclaimed at Nuremberg made Jew’s second-class citizens.  These Nuremberg laws defined Jews, not by their religion or by how they wanted to be identified, but by the religious affiliation of their grandparents.

13 1933-1939--Jews  Between 1932 and 1939, anti-Jewish regulations segregated Jews further, including the Nuremberg Laws.

14 April 23—Write an identification for the Nuremberg laws.

15 1933-1939--Handicapped  The Law for Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Disease, July 14, 1933, forced the sterilization of all persons who suffered from diseases considered hereditary.  Before Hitler, the US led the world in forced sterilizations.  Eugenics= belief that the human race could be improved by controlled, selective breeding.

16 1933-1939--Handicapped  In January 1934 approx. 300,000 to 400,000 people were sterilized under the law. Several thousand died as a result of the operations.  In October 1939, Hitler initiates a decree which empowers physicians to grant a “mercy death” to patients deemed incurable.  In all between 200,000 and 250,000 mentally and physically handicapped people were murdered from 1939-1945.

17 1933-1939—Jehovah’s Witnesses  Was founded in the US in the 1870s.  By the early 1930s only 20,000 Germans were Jehovah’s Witnesses.  April 1933, Jehovah’s Witnesses are banned in Bavaria and by the summer in most of Germany.  April 1, 1935, law banned the group nationally.

18 1933-1939—Jehovah’s Witnesses  In 1935, Germany introduced conscription. Jehovah’s Witnesses were arrested and incarcerated in prisons and concentration camps for refused to be drafted.  In 1936 a special unit of the Gestapo began compiling a registry of Jehovah’s Witnesses.  By 1939, approx. 6,000 Witnesses were detained in prisons or camps.

19 1933-1939—Jehovah’s Witnesses  Approx. 10,000 Witnesses were imprisoned in concentration camps.  An estimated 2,500-5,000 Witnesses died in camps or prisons.  More than 200 men were executed for refusing military service.

20 May 1—Why do you think genocides continue to occur?

21 1933-1939—Sinti and Roma  In 1939, 30,000-50,000 “Gypsies” lived in Germany and Austria.  A Bavarian law of July 16, 1926 required the registration of all Sinti and Roma.  Under the July 1933 Law for Provention of offspring with Hereditary Defects physicians sterilized an unknown number of Gypsies.

22 1933-1939—Sinti and Roma  Under the Law against Dangerous Habitual Criminals of November 1933, the police arrested many Gypsies along with prostitutes, beggars, chronic alcoholics, and homeless vagrants, and imprisoned them in concentration camps.  As the war broke out, Gypsies were sent to ghettos and then to death camps.  Approx. 220,000-500,000 Sinti and Roma were killed

23 1933-1939--Homosexuals  In 1934, a special Gestapo division on homosexuals was set up.  An estimated 1.2 million men were homosexuals in Germany in 1928.  1933-1945 100,000 men were arrested as homosexuals and of these some 50,000 were sentenced to prison.  5,000-15,000 were incarcerated in concentration camps.

24 1933-1939--Homosexuals  After the war homosexual concentration camp prisoners were not considered victims of Nazi persecution and some were forced to serve out their sentences.  They refused no reparations.  The law remained in effect in the Federal Republic (West Germany) until 1969.

25 1939-1945--Poles  On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland and WWII began.  Within weeks the Polish army was defeated and the Nazis began their campaign to destroy Polish culture and enslave the Polish people whom they viewed as “subhuman.”  It is believed that 1.8 million to 1.9 million non-Jewish civilians were victims of German occupation policies and war.

26 1939-1945  In the months following Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union, Jews, political leaders, Communists, and many Roma (Gypsies) were killed in mass shootings.

27 1939-1945  During the war, ghettos, transit camps, and forced labor camps, in addition to the concentration camps, were created by the Germans to imprison Jews, Roma, and other victims.


29 Statistics  There were 10,005 “camps”  941 were forced labor camps  230 were especially made for Hungarian Jews  399 Ghettos in Poland  52 main concentration camps with 1,202 satellite camps

30 1939-1945  Between 1942 and 1945, the Germans moved to eliminate the ghettos in occupied Poland and elsewhere.  They deported ghetto residents to “extermination camps”—killing centers equipped with gassing facilities.

31 1939-1945  Auschwitz-Birkenau, which also served as a concentration camp, became the killing center were the largest numbers of European Jews and Roma were killed.  The killing centers were operated by the SS.

32 1939-1945  There were instances of organized resistance in almost every concentration camp and ghetto.  An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 Jews fought bravely as partisans in resistance groups.  Organized armed resistance was the most direct form of opposition.

33 Obstacles to Resistance  Superior armed power of the Germans  German tactic of “collective responsibility”  Isolation of Jews and lack of weapons  Secrecy and deception of deportations

34 1939-1945  By the summer of 1944, the Nazis had emptied all ghettos in eastern Europe and killed most of their former inhabitants.  After the war turned against Germany and the Allied armies approached German soil in late 1944, the SS decided to evacuate outlying concentration camps.

35 1939-1945  In May 1945, Nazi Germany collapsed, the SS guards fled, and the camps ceased to exist.


37 Aftermath of the Holocaust  Following the war, the trials of “major” war criminals was held at the palace of Justice in Nuremberg, Germany between November 1945 and August 1946.  These trials were conducted by the International Military Tribunal.

38 Aftermath of the Holocaust  Trials and investigations continue today.

39 Ch 16 Sec 5  Nuremberg Trials  Demilitarized  democratization

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