6 B. The Old OrderOld Regime—Political and social system of France prior to the French Revolution. Under the regime, everyone was a subject of the king of France as well as a member of an estate. (“Old Order”)Estate—social classThere were 3 large estates in France until the French Revolution
8 B. The Old Order a. The Three Estates Estate/Social ClassPrivileges/ CharacteristicsA. First EstateMade up of clergy from the Roman Catholic ChurchHATED/SCORNED the ideas of the EnlightenmentB. Second EstateMade up of rich noblesHeld highest offices in governmentMostly disagreed about Enlightenment ideasC. Third EstateIncluded bourgeoisie, lower class, and peasantsHad no power or influence in governmentEmbraced Enlightenment ideasResented the wealthy First and Second estates
11 C. The Enlightenment Ideas Third Estate—inspired by the success of the American RevolutionBegan to demand equality, liberty, and democracy“The Third estate is the People and the People is the foundation of the State; it is in fact the State itself; the…People is everything. Everything should be subordinated to it…It is in the People that all national power resides and for the People that all states exist.”—Comte D’antraigues
12 D. Weak LeadershipKing Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette (heavy spender)
13 D. Weak LeadershipThe monarchy living in luxury, the peasants and working classes in misery1st and 2nd Estate--Privileges3rd Estate MiseryFull course mealsNo meals, only bread or rummaging through garbageNo taxes (or hardly any at all)Nearly the entire country’s taxes came from this estate, most money to the governmentHeld lavish partiesStruggled to surviveIgnored the lower estateCould not help but notice the differences between them and the wealthy
14 D. Weak Leadership“Madame Deficit”—spent so much on gowns, jewels, parties, etcGave Louis poor advice, because of Austrian Hapsburg lineage-very unpopular in FranceMarie Antoinette Trailer
15 II. Dawn of the Revolution Debt continued to grow in France until Louis XVI decided to tax the nobilityNobility (2nd Estate) forced him to call an Estates-General to approve/deny taxAssembly of representatives from all three estates
16 A. The National Assembly Third Estate delegates become the National AssemblyNA = representatives acting for the peopleThis was the FIRST ACT OF REVOLUTION—declared end of absolute monarchy in France and enacted a representative form of government
17 B. The Tennis Court OathDuring Estates-General, after the Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly, they were locked out of their meeting room. The Third Estate broke into a room, which happened to be a tennis court. There, they held their meeting and pledged to stay until they drew up a new constitution for France. Because of these events, Louis XVI sent an army to surround and guard Versailles.
19 C. Storming of the Bastille French citizens angry about the guards around VersaillesThey gathered weapons, and marched towards the Bastille, storming it and took it over. They tore it down, brick by brick.Bastille—Paris prison, city arms stored inside
22 D. The Great FearWave of panic (they feared that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize peasants)Peasants became outlaws, reacted to fear, stealing, breaking into and burning down nobles’ manors/houses.Weapons: pitchforks, other farm tools, axes, knives, other weapons
23 Video Clips The Affair of the Necklace—Marie Antoinette Beheading Family Guy-Beheading of Louis XVI
24 Questions Sec 1 Questions--The French Revolution Begins *questions are at the bottom of your notesUse your notes and the chapter (23 pdf)
25 Section 2—TERMS TO KNOW: Legislative Assembly: legislative body that had the power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations of warFaction: A group of persons forming a cohesive, usually contentious (argumentative) minority within a larger group.Declaration of the The Rights of Man and of the Citizen: inspired by Declaration of Independence—very similar, declared men free and equal
26 Section 2—TERMS TO KNOW: Reign of Terror: time when Robespierre ruled virtually as a dictatormass executions of "enemies of the revolution”Caused distrust and fear in the nationGuillotine
27 Section 2—Pairing Activity It’s a competition!Whichever team finishes first with ALL the correct answers will receive candy.
28 Ch 23, Section 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Answers
29 National Assembly adopts Declaration of the Rights of Man What are some rights this documents guarantees French citizens?Liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression
30 2. National Assembly reforms status of church What caused the peasants to oppose many of these reforms?Peasants were Catholic, wanted separation of church and stateb. What did selling church lands help pay off?French debt
31 3. National Assembly hands power to Legislative Assembly What political factions made up the Legislative Assembly? Radicals, moderates, conservatives
32 4. Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria, Parisian invade Tuileries and imprison royal family What did European monarchs fear from France?Feared similar revolts might break out in their own counryWho declared war?Legislative Assemblyb. Why did France go to war?Austria/Prussia wanted Louis XVI back as the absolute monarch of France
33 5. Parisian mobs massacre more than 1,000 prisoners, Louis XVI is executed What effects did the September Massacres have on the government? Set aside the constitution, deposed the king, dissolved the assembly, called for a new legislature a. What was the guillotine and who was beheaded? Beheading machine, Louis XVI
34 6. Robespierre leads Committee of Public Safety; Reign of Terror Begins What was the state aim of Robespierre and his supporters? Build a republic of virtue 7. Robespierre is executed; Reign of Terror ends What were some consequences of the Reign of Terror? Public opinion changed, grew tired of terror and skyrocketing prices for bread, salt and other necessities of life Part III--The F Rev
35 B. SummarizingA. émigrés: nobles and others who had fled France and wanted to restore the Old Regime B. sans-culottes: those without knee breeches and did not have a role in the assembly but discovered ways to have power on the streets of paris C. Jacobins: club members-radical political organization and involved in governmental changes
38 The Congress of ViennaA series of meetings to bring order, stability and peace to Europe.
39 Metternich’s Plan for Europe Five European “great powers”AustriaPrussiaRussiaGreat BritainFrance
40 Representatives of Austria Foreign Minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich--MOST INFLUENTIALEmperor Francis I of Austria
41 Representatives of Prussia Karl von HardenbergWilhelm von HumboldtKing Frederick William III of Prussia
42 Representatives of Russia Count Karl NesselrodeCzar Alexander I of Russia
43 Representatives of Great Britain Robert Stewart, Viscount CastlereaghArthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of WellingtonRichard Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty
44 Representatives of France Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
45 Goals of Metternich’s Plan Establish lasting peace and stability in EuropePrevent future French aggressionRestore balance of powerRestore royal families to thrones
46 The Containment—Actions Taken Formed Kingdom of the NetherlandsCreated German ConfederationRecognized independence of SwitzerlandAdded Genoa to Kingdom of Sardinia
47 The Balance of PowerMetternich sought to maintain peace between European nations by creating a balance of power among rival countries so no country would be a threat to the others.
48 LegitimacyFrance, Spain, and several states in Italy and Central Europe were restored to power underneath the principle of legitimacy.They agreed to come to each other’s aid whenever in need.
49 POLITICAL CHANGES BEYOND VIENNA Britain and France had constitutional monarchsPrussia, Russia and Austria had absolute monarchs
50 Conservative EuropeTo guard against revolutions, he set up a series of alliances called the Concert of Europe, which required nations to help one another if a revolution erupted.
51 Long-Term Legacy Established and maintained balance of power Diminished power of FranceIncreased power of Britain and PrussiaSparked growth of nationalismPermanent change of authority = democracy started