Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution 1789-1815 Ms K Boring. The Ripple Effect Continues The Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment The American Revolution The French."— Presentation transcript:
The French Revolution Ms K Boring
The Ripple Effect Continues The Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment The American Revolution The French Revolution
I. Causes of the French Revolution The French Revolution Saw the American Revolution as an example Economic and Social Inequalities and Troubles Enlightenment Ideas
A. Economic and Social Inequalities and Troubles Gap between poor and rich was huge Years of bad harvests High prices on foods, housing and necessities (supply and demand) High taxes (not for the rich)
B. The Old Order Old Regime—Political and social system of France prior to the French Revolution. Under the regime, everyone was a subject of the king of France as well as a member of an estate. (“Old Order”) Estate—social class – There were 3 large estates in France until the French Revolution
B. The Old Order a. The Three Estates Estate/Social ClassPrivileges/ Characteristics A. First Estate 1.Made up of clergy from the Roman Catholic Church 2.HATED/SCORNED the ideas of the Enlightenment B. Second Estate 1.Made up of rich nobles 2.Held highest offices in government 3.Mostly disagreed about Enlightenment ideas C. Third Estate 1.Included bourgeoisie, lower class, and peasants 2.Had no power or influence in government 3.Embraced Enlightenment ideas 4.Resented the wealthy First and Second estates
C. The Enlightenment Ideas Third Estate—inspired by the success of the American Revolution Began to demand equality, liberty, and democracy “The Third estate is the People and the People is the foundation of the State; it is in fact the State itself; the…People is everything. Everything should be subordinated to it…It is in the People that all national power resides and for the People that all states exist.”—Comte D’antraigues
D. Weak Leadership King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette (heavy spender)
D. Weak Leadership The monarchy living in luxury, the peasants and working classes in misery
D. Weak Leadership “Madame Deficit”— spent so much on gowns, jewels, parties, etc Gave Louis poor advice, because of Austrian Hapsburg lineage-very unpopular in France Marie Antoinette Trailer
II. Dawn of the Revolution Debt continued to grow in France until Louis XVI decided to tax the nobility – Nobility (2 nd Estate) forced him to call an Estates- General to approve/deny tax Assembly of representatives from all three estates
A. The National Assembly Third Estate delegates become the National Assembly – NA = representatives acting for the people This was the FIRST ACT OF REVOLUTION— declared end of absolute monarchy in France and enacted a representative form of government
B. The Tennis Court Oath During Estates-General, after the Third Estate declared themselves the National Assembly, they were locked out of their meeting room. The Third Estate broke into a room, which happened to be a tennis court. There, they held their meeting and pledged to stay until they drew up a new constitution for France. Because of these events, Louis XVI sent an army to surround and guard Versailles.
C. Storming of the Bastille French citizens angry about the guards around Versailles They gathered weapons, and marched towards the Bastille, storming it and took it over. They tore it down, brick by brick. Bastille—Paris prison, city arms stored inside
Storming of the Bastille
D. The Great Fear Wave of panic (they feared that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize peasants) Peasants became outlaws, reacted to fear, stealing, breaking into and burning down nobles’ manors/houses. Weapons: pitchforks, other farm tools, axes, knives, other weapons
Video Clips The Affair of the Necklace—Marie Antoinette Beheading Family Guy-Beheading of Louis XVI
Questions Sec 1 Questions--The French Revolution Begins *questions are at the bottom of your notes Use your notes and the chapter (23 pdf)
Section 2—TERMS TO KNOW: Legislative Assembly: legislative body that had the power to create laws and to approve or reject declarations of war Faction: A group of persons forming a cohesive, usually contentious (argumentative) minority within a larger group. Declaration of the The Rights of Man and of the Citizen: inspired by Declaration of Independence— very similar, declared men free and equal
Section 2—TERMS TO KNOW: Reign of Terror: time when Robespierre ruled virtually as a dictator – mass executions of "enemies of the revolution” – Caused distrust and fear in the nation – Guillotine Guillotine
Section 2—Pairing Activity It’s a competition! Whichever team finishes first with ALL the correct answers will receive candy.
Ch 23, Section 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Answers
1.National Assembly adopts Declaration of the Rights of Man What are some rights this documents guarantees French citizens? Liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression
2. National Assembly reforms status of church What caused the peasants to oppose many of these reforms? Peasants were Catholic, wanted separation of church and state b. What did selling church lands help pay off? French debt
3. National Assembly hands power to Legislative Assembly What political factions made up the Legislative Assembly? Radicals, moderates, conservatives
4. Legislative Assembly declares war on Austria, Parisian invade Tuileries and imprison royal family What did European monarchs fear from France? Feared similar revolts might break out in their own counry a.Who declared war? Legislative Assembly b. Why did France go to war? Austria/Prussia wanted Louis XVI back as the absolute monarch of France
5. Parisian mobs massacre more than 1,000 prisoners, Louis XVI is executed What effects did the September Massacres have on the government? Set aside the constitution, deposed the king, dissolved the assembly, called for a new legislature a. What was the guillotine and who was beheaded? Beheading machine, Louis XVI
6. Robespierre leads Committee of Public Safety; Reign of Terror Begins What was the state aim of Robespierre and his supporters? Build a republic of virtue 7. Robespierre is executed; Reign of Terror ends What were some consequences of the Reign of Terror? Public opinion changed, grew tired of terror and skyrocketing prices for bread, salt and other necessities of life Part III--The F Rev
B. Summarizing A. émigrés: nobles and others who had fled France and wanted to restore the Old Regime B. sans-culottes: those without knee breeches and did not have a role in the assembly but discovered ways to have power on the streets of paris C. Jacobins: club members-radical political organization and involved in governmental changes
Outlining Section 5
The Congress of Vienna Chapter 23, Section 5
The Congress of Vienna A series of meetings to bring order, stability and peace to Europe.
Metternich’s Plan for Europe Five European “great powers” – Austria – Prussia – Russia – Great Britain – France
Representatives of Austria Foreign Minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich --MOST INFLUENTIAL Emperor Francis I of Austria Emperor Francis I of Austria
Representatives of Prussia Karl von Hardenberg Wilhelm von Humboldt Wilhelm von Humboldt King Frederick William III of Prussia King Frederick William III of Prussia
Representatives of Russia Czar Alexander I of Russia Count Karl Nesselrode
Representatives of Great Britain Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington Richard Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty
Representatives of France Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Goals of Metternich’s Plan Establish lasting peace and stability in Europe Prevent future French aggression Restore balance of power Restore royal families to thrones
The Containment—Actions Taken Formed Kingdom of the Netherlands Created German Confederation Recognized independence of Switzerland Added Genoa to Kingdom of Sardinia
The Balance of Power Metternich sought to maintain peace between European nations by creating a balance of power among rival countries so no country would be a threat to the others.
Legitimacy France, Spain, and several states in Italy and Central Europe were restored to power underneath the principle of legitimacy. They agreed to come to each other’s aid whenever in need.
POLITICAL CHANGES BEYOND VIENNA Britain and France had constitutional monarchs Prussia, Russia and Austria had absolute monarchs
Conservative Europe To guard against revolutions, he set up a series of alliances called the Concert of Europe, which required nations to help one another if a revolution erupted.
Long-Term Legacy Established and maintained balance of power Diminished power of France Increased power of Britain and Prussia Sparked growth of nationalism Permanent change of authority = democracy started