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Masculinities: Ken doll. Ernest Hemingway men men 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Masculinities: Ken doll. Ernest Hemingway men men 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Masculinities: Ken doll

2 Ernest Hemingway

3 men

4 men 2

5 men 3

6 men 4

7 Asymmetry between study of femininity and masculinity „Woman has ovaries, a uterus; theese peculiarities imprison her within the limits of her own nature. It is often said that she thinks with her glands. Man superbly ignores the fact that his own anatomy also includes glands, such as testicles, and that they secrete hormones. He thinks of his body as a direct and normal connection with the world, which he believes he apprehends objectively, whereas he regards the body of woman as a hindrance, a prison, weighed down by everything peculiar to it.” (Simone de Beauvoir)

8 Masculinity as a social construction Hegemonic masculinity (W. Connell)

9 Edward Poynter: The Catapult

10 „If we live in a ‘man’s world’, it is not a world that has been built upon the needs and nourishment of men. Rather, it is a social world of power and subordination in which men have been forced to compete if we want to benefit from our inherited masculinity” (Victor Seidler)

11 „our culture cruelly constrains [men], in varying degree, to be the bearers of a gender identity that deforms and harms them as much as it damages women” (Cynthia Cockburn)

12 The male machine is a special kind of being, different from women, children, and men who don’t measure up. He is functional, designed mainly for work... His most important positive reinforcement is victory. He has armour plating which is virtually impregnable... The male stereotype makes masculinity not just a fact of biology but something that must be proved and re-proved, a continual quest for an ever- receding Holy Grail Marc Feigen Fasteau: The Male Machine (1974)

13 Masculinity is not simply a position of power that puts men in comfortable positions of control... If we understand masculinity as a constant contradictory struggle rather than just the privileged position within a power disequilibrium, we come closer to a full understanding of gender studies (Peter N. Stearns: Be a Man! Males in Modern Society, 1990)

14 Masculinity (gender) as construction - Psychological construction for each individual - Social construction, set of ideas, practices, images

15 Masculinity as a psychological construction Freud: Oedipus complex, Oedipal rivalry Alfred Adler: inferiority complex Karen Horney, Melanie Klein: breast envy (couvade) Carl Gustav Jung: persona vs. anima

16 Louis XIV and his shapely legs

17 Victorian masculinities Classical (Roman) heroes Ascetic, monastic ideal (masculinity as the repression of male energies) Chivalric ideal Muscular Christianity Soldier hero Athleticism, physical culture Homosociality

18 Dandyism: Beau Brummell and Oscar Wilde

19 David: Oath of the Horatii

20 Frank Dicksee: Chivalry

21 Collinson: The Siege of Sebastopol

22 W. Frank Calderon: Son of the Empire

23 Charles Spencelayh: Dreams of Glory 1900

24 „Athletics vs. Aesthetics” Illustrated London News, 1882

25 Lord Baden- Powell’s book (1908)

26 But, besides boy scouts, there are also peace scouts... There are the frontiersmen of all parts of our Empire. The ’trappers’ of North America, hunters of Central Africa, the British pioneers, explorers, and missionaries over Asia and all the wild parts of the world, – all are peace scouts, real men in every sense of the word, and thoroughly up in scoutcraft, i. e. they understand living out in the jungles,... they know how to look after their health when far away from any doctors, are strong and plucky, and ready to face any danger, and aways keen to help each other. They are accustomed to take their lives in their hands, and to fling them down without hesitation if they can help their country by doing so. They give up everything, their personal comforts and desires in order to get their work done. They do not do all this for their own amusement, but because it is their duty to their King, fellow-countrymen, or employers. The history of the Empire has been made by British adventurers and explorers, the scouts of the nation, for hundreds of years. The Knights of King Arthur, Richard Coeur de Lion, and the Crusaders, carried British chivalry into distant parts of the earth. (Lord Robert Baden-Powell, Scouting for Boys, 1908)

27 Frederick Leighton: Daedalus and Icarus

28 Eugen Sandow


30 The Dying Gaul

31 Briton: Dead Hector – Nevinson: Paths of Glory

32 Richard Nevinson (WW1)

33 John Singer Sargent: Gassed

34 Eric Kennington: Gassed and Wounded

35 Eric Kennington: The Making of a Soldier (Gas Mask)

36 Hard-boiled thriller, film noir (Raymond Chandler) Humphrey Bogart

37 Hans Suren: Men and the Sun

38 Arno Breker’s sculptures

39 Kameradschaft

40 Young Italian fascist This century is ours And we shall live In the full beauty of our Manhood (Theo Lang, British Union of Fascists, 1935)

41 Body building

42 Arnold

43 Body building is „the dream of physical perfection and the agonies you go through to attain it” (Arnold Schwarzenegger: Pumping Iron, 1976) „Dominant fiction calls upon the male subject to see himself... only through the mediation of unimpaired masculinity” (Kaja Silverman, Male Subjectivity at the Margins 1992)

44 The idea of Arnold Scwarzenegger

45 Three blacksmiths statue (Helsinki)

46 Marlon Brando in The Streetcar named Desire




50 Burt Reynolds in Cosmo, 1972

51 Titian: Venus of Urbino

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