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The Stuarts in English history Liceo Scientifico “A. Einstein” School Year 2013 – 2014 Class 4ALS Student: Vitale Elisa.

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Presentation on theme: "The Stuarts in English history Liceo Scientifico “A. Einstein” School Year 2013 – 2014 Class 4ALS Student: Vitale Elisa."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Stuarts in English history Liceo Scientifico “A. Einstein” School Year 2013 – 2014 Class 4ALS Student: Vitale Elisa

2 The Stuarts Royal house that ruled Scotland. Ruled England from 1603 to 1714 after the House of Tudor. Succeded by the House of Hanover. Originally “House of Stewart”: Stewart comes from “steward” (political position of office similar to a governor). Origins date back to Norman Conquest when Alan FitzFlaad came to Scotland. His great-grandson became first hereditary High Steward of Scotland. XVI century: Mary, Queen of Scots adopted the French spelling “Stuart”. 2

3 The Stuarts in England (1603 – 1714) Early Stuarts 1603 – 1625: King James VI and I 1625 – 1649: King Charles I Late Stuarts 1660 – 1685: King Charles II 1685 – 1688: King James II 1689 – 1694: Queen Mary II 1689 – 1702: King William III 1702 – 1714: Queen Anne 3

4 James VI and I of Scotland (born 1566 – died 1625) Son of Mary, Queen of Scots. 1567: Became King of Scotland at 1 year old. 1603: Succeeded Elizabeth I Tudor and became King of England  England and Scotland united under one monarch. 1609: Ulster Plantation  introduced English and Irish Protestants into Northern Ireland. Believed in Divine Right of Kings. Made Sunday Church-going compulsory. Refused to listen to Puritan demands for Church reform. 4

5 James VI and I of Scotland (born 1566 – died 1625) Unable to treat with the Parliament Unable to solve the country’s financial, political and religious problems: left the country badly in debt. Cultural flourishing continued from Elizabethan Era: supported an English translation of the Bible. James I wasn’t a good king, had bad habits (avoided hard work, never washed his hands, …) and was distant from his people. 5

6 James I’s second son (his brother died in 1612) 1625: Became King of England Opposed the Parliament and believed in Divine Right of Kings. Supported the Church and married the catholic Henrietta Maria. 1629: Needed money to fight against Spain and France. The Parliament refused his requests. Charles dismissed Parliament and ruled alone for 11 years  Petition of RightPetition of Right 1639 – 1640: Bishops Wars 1642 – 1651: Civil War Executed in 1649. Charles I of England (born 1600 – died 1649) 6

7 Petition of Right (1628) Presented by Sir Edward Coke because Charles I broke up Parliament and ruled on his own. Cited the Magna Carta (1215): the King isn’t above the law and can’t give Englishmen their rights. Charles I was asked: – Not to impose taxes without the Parliament’s approval; – Not to imprison free men without trials; – Not to force free men to billet soldiers and sailors. The king accepted the Petition of Right, but soon broke his word and resumed the violations. This struggle resulted in the Civil War and ended with the beheading of Charles I in 1649. 7

8 Interregnum: Oliver Cromwell (born 1599 – died 1658) Parliament member. Signatory of King Charles I's death warrant. 1649: Became Lord Protector of the republic of England, also known as Commonwealth. Refused the crown and ruled without Parliament. Religious toleration including Jews, excluding Atheists and Catholics. Defeated supporters of the king’s son Charles II. Succeeded by son Richard in 1658, who had no wish to rule and ran away from London in 1660. 8

9 Charles II of England (born 1630 – died 1685) Charles I’s son. 1649: became King of England, and was recognised as King of Scotland and Ireland. 1649 – 1660: Interregnum and Commonwealth. 1660: Parliament invited him to come back as King of England (Restoration). Known as “Merry Monarch” because of his love for parties, music and theatre: abolished Cromwell’s laws that forbade music and dancing. Approved the foundation of Royal Society. Extravagant with money  debts. Forced to marry Portuguese Catherine of Braganza from whom he had no children. 9

10 James II of England (born 1633 – died 1701) Charles II’s brother. 1685: Became King of England despite Parliament opposition and Test Acts (1673). Religious policy, openly catholic. Wanted his son James Francis Edward to succeed him. Excluded his nephew William III of Orange and his daughter Mary  Bill of rights.Bill of rights 1688: Glorious Revolution and end of James II’s reign. 1689: James II was exiled in France. 10

11 Bill of Rights (1689) Act presented by William of Orange and Mary, inviting them to become sovereigns of England. Condemned James II of England. Set right of the Parliament and limited the power of the crown: end of the Divine Right of Kings Established that the King always had to be Protestant. Reestablished the liberty of Protestants to have arms for their defence within the rule of law. Required regular elections to Parliament. Established the right to petition the monarch without fear of retribution. 11

12 Mary II of England (born 1662 – died 1694) James II’s daughter, William III’s cousin and wife. Protestant. 1689: Became Queen of England and Ireland. Shared the throne with her husband, but had less power than him. William heavily relied on her. Ruled alone during William’s military campaigns, proving herself to be a powerful, firm, and effective ruler. Died in 1694, leaving the throne to William. 12

13 William III of England (born 1650 – died 1702) James II’s nephew, Mary II’s cousin and husband. Last of the House of Orange. Protestant. 1689: Became King of England, Scotland and Ireland. Known as “King Billy”. Transition from personal to Parliament- centred rule. 1697: Defeated Louis XIV of France, his lifelong enemy. Died in 1702 after an incident (broken collarbone). He had no heir. 13

14 Anne, Queen of Great Britain (born 1665 – died 1714) Mary II’s sister. Married to Prince George of Denmark. First Queen of Great Britain. 1707: Act of Union. Kingdoms of England and Scotland became the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Known as “brandy nan”. Protestant. Supported the Glorious Revolution. Last of the Stuart dinasty: none of her children survived infancy. Succeeded by George I of Hanover in 1714. 14

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