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The Japanese Canadian Question: WWII. Japanese Aggression… Japanese expansion in East Asia began in 1931 with the invasion of Manchuria and continued.

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Presentation on theme: "The Japanese Canadian Question: WWII. Japanese Aggression… Japanese expansion in East Asia began in 1931 with the invasion of Manchuria and continued."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Japanese Canadian Question: WWII

2 Japanese Aggression… Japanese expansion in East Asia began in 1931 with the invasion of Manchuria and continued in 1937 with a brutal attack on China. Japanese expansion in East Asia began in 1931 with the invasion of Manchuria and continued in 1937 with a brutal attack on China. On February 24 th, 1933, Japan stuns the world and withdraws from the League of Nations. On February 24 th, 1933, Japan stuns the world and withdraws from the League of Nations.

3 White Board Which American Holdings did the Japanese take in the Pacific Which American Holdings did the Japanese take in the Pacific

4 JAPANESE AGRESSION Japan would occupying Indonesia, parts of China, the Philippines, Malaya, Burma, and Singapore, anti- Japanese sentiments increasing

5 WHITE BOARD -What Nations were in the Central Powers during WWI? -What Nations were in the Axis Powers During WWII?

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7 The Tripartite Pact On September 27, 1940, Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy, J Join "Axis."

8 Embargo Against Japan the United States, Britain and the Netherlands froze all Japanese financial assets. the United States, Britain and the Netherlands froze all Japanese financial assets. prevent Japan from purchasing oil prevent Japan from purchasing oil

9 Discuss Come up with 2 ways this actions could devastate Japan? Come up with 2 ways this actions could devastate Japan? How could Japan get oil with out buying it from foreign nations? How could Japan get oil with out buying it from foreign nations?

10 Canadian Sentiment… 1939, British Columbia included around 21,000 Canadians of Japanese origin, 75% of whom had residence rights. 1939, British Columbia included around 21,000 Canadians of Japanese origin, 75% of whom had residence rights. belief was Japanese are unable to assimilate into Canadian society as easily belief was Japanese are unable to assimilate into Canadian society as easily Mackenzie King expressed “the extreme difficulty of assimilating Japanese persons in Canada” Mackenzie King expressed “the extreme difficulty of assimilating Japanese persons in Canada”

11 Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbour! December 7, 1941, President Roosevelt declares it “The Day of Infamy”. December 7, 1941, President Roosevelt declares it “The Day of Infamy”.

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13 The Battle of Hong Kong Hong Kong surrendered on Christmas Day Of the 1,975 Canadians, 290 were killed and 493 wounded. A further 260 died inPOW camps in Hong Kong and Japan.

14 Loyalty of Japanese Canadians Japanese submarines are known to have been operating off the coast of British Columbia Japanese submarines are known to have been operating off the coast of British Columbia Canadian military evaluations suggested no imminent threat by Japanese Canadians, Canadian military evaluations suggested no imminent threat by Japanese Canadians, Many Canadians Feel no guarantee of the loyalty, or passivity of Japanese- Canadians. Many Canadians Feel no guarantee of the loyalty, or passivity of Japanese- Canadians.

15 Discuss Why do you think Japanese were targeted at a much higher rate than people of German background? Why do you think Japanese were targeted at a much higher rate than people of German background?

16 The Canadian War Measures Act 1914 – “gave the government sweeping powers to ensure the security, defence, peace, order, and welfare of Canada.” 1914 – “gave the government sweeping powers to ensure the security, defence, peace, order, and welfare of Canada.” Used to imprison CANADIANS of German, Ukrainian, and Slavic descent in WWI. Used to imprison CANADIANS of German, Ukrainian, and Slavic descent in WWI War Measures Act invoked- this allowed for the internment of enemy aliens War Measures Act invoked- this allowed for the internment of enemy aliens

17 What should be done? Resentment against Japanese Canadians exploded into panic and anger in British Columbia. Resentment against Japanese Canadians exploded into panic and anger in British Columbia. 1,200 fishing boats were seized by the Canadian navy in fear of spying 1,200 fishing boats were seized by the Canadian navy in fear of spying

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19 Japanese Internment in Canada ■ The movement of 23,000 Japanese Canadians during the war was the largest mass exodus in Canadian history.

20 Internment Timeline 1941 (December 8): 1,200 Japanese Canadian fishing boats are impounded. Japanese language newspapers and schools close (January 16): Removal begins of Japanese immigrant males from coastal areas (February 24): All male Japanese Canadian citizens between the ages of 18 and 45 ordered to be removed from 100-mile-wide zone along the coast of British Columbia (February 26): Mass evacuation of Japanese Canadians begins. Some given only 24 hours notice. Cars, cameras and radios confiscated for “protective measures”. Curfew imposed (March 4): Japanese Canadians ordered to turn over property and belongings to Custodian of Enemy Alien Property as a “protective measure only”. Eventually these assets were sold and proceeds used to pay for the interment 1942 (March 25): British Columbia Security Commission initiates scheme of forcing men to road camps and women and children to “ghost town” detention camps.

21 Conditions in the Camps Housed in huts with two bedrooms and a kitchen Housed in huts with two bedrooms and a kitchen shared by two families shared by two families No electricity or running water until 1943 No electricity or running water until 1943

22 Camp Conditions continued Hundreds of women and children were squeezed into livestock buildings Hundreds of women and children were squeezed into livestock buildings Slept on beds covered in straw for comfort Slept on beds covered in straw for comfort Conditions were so poor that food packages were sent from Japan through the Canadian Red Cross to those suffering in the camps Conditions were so poor that food packages were sent from Japan through the Canadian Red Cross to those suffering in the camps

23 White Board What other nations actions probably help justify internment? What other nations actions probably help justify internment?

24 End of the War In 1945, the government extended the Order in Council to force the Japanese Canadians to go to Japan and lose their Canadian citizenship, or move to eastern Canada. In 1945, the government extended the Order in Council to force the Japanese Canadians to go to Japan and lose their Canadian citizenship, or move to eastern Canada. Even though the war was over, it was illegal for Japanese Canadians to return to Vancouver until Even though the war was over, it was illegal for Japanese Canadians to return to Vancouver until Public protest would eventually stop the deportations, but not before 4000 Japanese left the country. Public protest would eventually stop the deportations, but not before 4000 Japanese left the country.

25 Acknowledging Wartime Wrongs Forty-three years after the end of the war, Prime minister Brian Mulroney acknowledged the wrong doings of the Canadian government and announced the awarding of $21,000 for each individual directly wronged. Forty-three years after the end of the war, Prime minister Brian Mulroney acknowledged the wrong doings of the Canadian government and announced the awarding of $21,000 for each individual directly wronged. Is this an acceptable redress to the issue? Is this an acceptable redress to the issue?

26 Watch Watch: David Suzuki- Internment Camp (2 min) O5ZUw Watch: David Suzuki- Internment Camp (2 min) O5ZUw O5ZUw O5ZUw Watch: CBC News: Apology to Japanese Canadians (4 min) Watch: CBC News: Apology to Japanese Canadians (4 min) IMQ&feature=related IMQ&feature=related

27 TOWN HALL MEETING 1. Students will form groups of 5. Each person will then be designated a letter (A, B, C, D or E) which represents a specific “profile”. 2. Students will read their designated “profile” and then return to their group. 1. Students will form groups of 5. Each person will then be designated a letter (A, B, C, D or E) which represents a specific “profile”. 2. Students will read their designated “profile” and then return to their group. 3. There will be a ‘town hall meeting’ (ie. Each table) in which students will present their profile and address the question: “Due to the increasing suspicions of the Japanese Canadians and following Canada’s declaration of war on Japan, what should be done with the Japanese Canadians living in British Columbia?” 3. There will be a ‘town hall meeting’ (ie. Each table) in which students will present their profile and address the question: “Due to the increasing suspicions of the Japanese Canadians and following Canada’s declaration of war on Japan, what should be done with the Japanese Canadians living in British Columbia?”

28 Take a stand…. what is more important: National Security National Security Individual Rights Individual Rights …keeping in mind that people make decisions based on what they know at the time!

29 Activity In pairs, examine “QUESTION 2” on the following worksheet: istory/history/debatingissues_ww2.html. With your partner, identify which arguments are for the “Yes” side and “No” side. In pairs, examine “QUESTION 2” on the following worksheet: istory/history/debatingissues_ww2.html. With your partner, identify which arguments are for the “Yes” side and “No” side. istory/history/debatingissues_ww2.html istory/history/debatingissues_ww2.html


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