Presentation on theme: "Unit One TEXT I Hit the Nail on the Head 恰到好处；一语中的） Time allotment: ( 9 periods) (the first 3 periods) Teaching aims: Students shall have a general idea."— Presentation transcript:
Unit One TEXT I Hit the Nail on the Head 恰到好处；一语中的） Time allotment: ( 9 periods) (the first 3 periods) Teaching aims: Students shall have a general idea of the text, background knowledge. Main and difficult teaching points: * The main idea * Background knowledge * Organization of the Text I. Pre-reading Questions 1. Suggested Answer (SA): It means exactly right in words or action. 2. SA: The author advises that the English students should try to get the words, phrases and sentences completely right for their purposes in their writing.
I Pre-reading Brainstorming: 1) What does the proverb “Hit the nail on the head” mean?
l Note: Hit the (right) nail on the head: be exactly right in words or action ( 说 / 做得对 ; 正中要害, 一针见血, 中肯 ) E.g. Your analysis really hit the nail on the head. 2) Why does the author encourage people to “Hit the nail on the head” mean?
The author advises that the English students should try to get the words, phrases and sentences completely right for their purposes in their writing
III. Library Work 1. 1) Gustave Flaubert (1821 – 1880), French novelist, was associated with, though not representative of, the movement of naturalism and known as one of the greatest realists of 19 th - century France. He devoted his life to long hours spent in heavy toil over his work. His writing is marked by exactness and accuracy of observation, extreme impersonality and objectivity of treatment, and precision and expressiveness in style, or the principle of the mot juste.
1. 2) Mrs. Malaprop is a famous character in Sheridan’s comedy The Rivals (1775). She is noted for her blunders in the use of words. “As headstrong （不受管束的） as an allegory （比方；寓言） (alligator) on the banks of the Nile” is one of her grotesque （荒唐 的） misapplications. She also requests that no delusions （欺骗 ; 迷惑） (allusions) to the past be made. She has given us the word malapropism （用词错误，尤指误用 发音相似而意义全非的词） as a name for such mistakes.
2. Hindi （印地语） is a literary and official language of northern India. Swahili （斯瓦希里语） is a Bantu （班图 ) language that is a trade and governmental language over much of East Africa and in the Congo region. Bantus are people belonging to a group of tribes found in equatorial and southern Africa. IV. Organization of the Text 1. An analogy between the unskilled use of the hammer and the improper choice of words (Paragraph 1)
2. The significance of finding the right words (Paragraphs 2 --- 3) 3. Semantic differences between words having the same root (Paragraphs 4 --- 7) (1). Example 1 (human vs. humane) (Paragraph 4) (2). Example 2 (anxiety vs. eagerness) (Paragraph 5) (3). Example 3 (singularity vs. singleness) (Paragraphs 6 – 7)
4. Wrong choice of words caused by failure to recognize their connotations (Paragraph 8) Examples: imprison, contain, sum up, epitomize and distill 5. Stylistic differences between synonyms (Paragraph 9) Examples: in my childhood vs. when I was a child; love to watch vs. love watching; die vs. expire; poor vs. in indigent circum- stances
6. The abundance of specific words in English for general notions (Paragraph 10) 7. Conclusion (Paragraph 11): the importance of a good control and command over known words (A good writer is not measured by the extent of his vocabulary, but by his skill in finding the word that will hit the nail cleanly on the head. )
Functions of analogy 1.to explain 2.to bring descriptions into life. 3.to make a special kind of comparison and to explain things in a more concrete way. 4.to show similarities between two things of different classes. 5.to be meaningful.
V. Key Points of the Text Paragraph 1 knock over: hit … to fall 捶翻 drive something home: force (the nail) into the right place; make something unmistakably clear 把（钉子等）打入；使明确无误 E.g. (1). He slammed the door and drove the bolt home. 他砰地关上门，把门闩插好。 (2). drive one’s point home 讲清楚自己的观点 (3). a voice that drives home each word 字字清晰 的说话声
(4). To drive home his policy, the president wrote his second letter. 为了阐明他的政策，总统又写 了第二封信。 (5). You must drive it home to John that we don’t have enough money. 你必须使约翰明白我们钱确 实不够。 deft: effortlessly skillful 熟练的 hit it squarely on the head: hitting it directly on the head. Also hit the (right) nail on the head: (informal) be exactly right in words or action 正 中要害；猜中；说得好，做得好
E.g. : (1). Your criticism really hit the nail on the head. 你的批评确是一针见血。 (2). In so saying, you hit the right nail on the head. 你这样说确是击中要害。 squarely: meaning “directly”, may be used both literally and figuratively. E.g. : (1). The boxer hit his opponent squarely on the jaw. (2). We must face the difficulty squarely.
Paragraph 1 clean English: English that is exact (precise) and clear a word that is more or less right: a word that is almost right, but not completely right 差不多恰 当的词语 Question 1: Which phrase in this paragraph marks a contrast between a clumsy man and a skillful carpenter? SA: On the other hand.
Paragraph 1 Question 1: Which sentence in Paragraph 1 establishes the link between the driving of a nail and the choice of a word? SA: So with language; the good craftsman will choose words that drive home his point firmly and exactly.
Paragraph 2 Question : What does the word “this” in Sentence 1 refer to? SA: Getting the word that is completely right for the writer’s purpose. scrupulous writers: writers who are thorough, exact, and who pay careful attention to details 一丝不苟的作家
scrupulous: correct even in the smallest detail; exact; painstaking; meticulous 严 格认真的, 审慎的 unscrupulous: 不择手段的, 肆无忌惮的, the opposite of scrupulous, seems to be more often used to describe people who do not care about honesty and fairness in getting what they want, or who are completely without principles. Also by hook or (by) crook: to win by hook or crook
Paragraph 2 Question : Do you agree with the author that there is a great deal of truth in the seemingly stupid question “How can I know what I think till I see what I say”? Why or why not?
Paragraph 2 SA: Yes, I do. It sounds irrational that a person does not know what he himself thinks before he sees what he says, but, as a matter of fact, it is quite true that unless we have found the exact words to verbalize our own thoughts we can never be very sure of what our thoughts are, without words, our thoughts cannot be defined or stated in a clear and precise manner.
Paragraph 3 that constitutes his limitation: that makes or forms his shortcoming or inability in certain respects concept vs. conception: A concept is an idea of a category or kind that has been generalized from particular instances. Thus, the concept of “cat” arises form the many cats we see. Concept also refers to a widely held idea of what something is or should be: The concept of
government of many small nations has been influenced by the legislative and judicial institutions of Britain. The meaning of conception is much like this second sense of concept, but differs in that the idea of what a thing is or should be is here held by an individual or small group and is often colored by imagination and feeling: A child’s conception of the universe is formed by his limited experience and his own fancies.
your conception of the man is clearer and sharper: your idea of the man is clearer and more distinct sharp: a word that has a variety of meanings E.g.: a sharp (thrill) voice 刺耳的语声 sharp (harsh) words a sharp (severe) pain
Paragraph 3 Question 3: What is the significance of finding the right words?
Words are many and various; they are subtle and delicate in their different shades of meaning. The exact use of language gives us mastery over the material we are dealing with.
Paragraph 4 human vs. humane: human: relating to or characteristic of humankind or people E.g.: human action: action taken by man 人的 行为 To err is human; to forgive, divine. 犯错人皆 难免；宽恕则属超凡。 human killer: a person or a machine that kills humans 杀人凶手；杀人机器
humane: having or showing compassion or benevolence; characterized by kindness, mercy, sympathy E.g.: humane action: merciful action 人道的行为 humane killer: that which kills but causes little pain; instrument for painless slaughter of animals 牲口无痛屠宰机，牲口麻醉屠宰机 Paragraph 5 far afield: far away from home; to or at a great distance; very far away 向远处, 远离
Paragraph 6 cowardice: lack of courage 怯懦, 胆小 rife: widespread, common （流行的，普遍的）. Rife is an adjective used with something negative. E.g.: (1). Crime and violence were rife in this city before liberation. (2). Typhoid fever (Poultry flu) is rife. 目前伤寒 （禽流感）流行。 (3). Corruption (Unemployment) is still rife in that country. 那个国家依然贪污成风（失业遍地）。
(4). The whole city is rife with rumors. 满城谣诼 纷纷。 (5). This article is rife with error. 这篇文章错误 百出。 (6). The country was rife with disease and violence. 那个国家当时疾病和暴力横行。 (7). Diseases used to be rife in that country. singularity vs. singleness: singularity: strangeness, oddity, peculiarity 奇特, 特性, 非凡 E.g.: singularity of mind 思想奇特；标新立异
singleness: complete devotion to; holding steadfastly to E.g.: singleness of mind 思想专一, 专心致 志 Paragraph 7 malapropism: an often amusing misuse of a word, such that the word incorrectly used sounds similar to the intended word but means something quite different 词语 误用（尤指误用发音相似而意义全非的词）
hold to: (cause to) follow exactly, keep to (something such as a promise); adhere to 坚持，遵守，忠于 E.g.: (1). Whatever your argument, I shall hold to my decision. (2). The priest held to his beliefs in spite of cruel treatment. (3). He holds to a simple life. 他坚持过着简 朴的生活。
(4). He held to his own counsel. 他按照自己的意 见行事。 (5). I hold to my promise. 我格守诺言。 draw aside: (cause to) move to one side E.g.: (1). Drawing the curtain aside, he looked down into the street. (2). The crowd drew aside to let the prisoner pass. Paragraph 8 Question: Explain why the word “imprison” in the example given in this paragraph, though not a malapropism, is still not the right word for the writer’s purpose.
SA: “Malapropism” means the unintentional misuse of a word by confusing it with one that resembles it, such as human for humane, singularity for singleness. But the misuse of “imprison” is a different case. It is wrongly chosen because the user has failed to recognize its connotation （内涵）. imprison: put into prison or keep in a place or state which one is not free to leave 监禁, 关押 ; 限制, 束缚
coercion: pressure, compulsion; government by force 强迫，压制；高压统治 E.g.: the coercion of public opinion 舆论的压力 coerce v.t.: 强制；胁迫；迫使 E.g.: coerce somebody into doing something 迫使 某人做谋事 coerce uniformity 强求一致 coercive adj. = coercionary adj.: serving or intended to coerce E.g.: coercive methods (measures) 强制的方法 （手段）
coercible adj. epitomize: be typical of; serve as the typical example of 代表，象征，体现， 写 … 的梗概，作 … 的纲要 E.g.: (1). He was the man who epitomized black resistance to the colonial government. 他代表着黑人对殖民地政府的反抗。 (2). His political creed was epitomized in this report. 他的政治信念就概括在这篇报 告中。
epitome n.: ① a thing or person that shows, to a very great degree, a quality or set of qualities (especially in the phrase the epitome of) 典型，象征；缩影 ② a short account of a book or speech 梗 概；缩写，节录 E.g.: (1). She is the epitome of arrogance. 她是傲慢的典型。 (2). My cat is the epitome of laziness (= My cat is very lazy.).
hit on: strike on: find by lucky chance or have a good idea about （偶然或忽然）发 现；碰上； 找到；想到 E.g.: (1). I hit on this interesting book in a small bookstore. 我在一家小书店里偶然发 现了这本有趣的书。 (2). The plan we hit upon was not logical, perhaps, but it worked. 我们想出来的那个 计划也许不合逻辑，但它行之有效。 (3). How did you hit on the right answer so quickly?
(4). At last someone hit upon taking the other road through the mountains. distill: take and separate the most important parts of (a book, a subject, etc.) 提炼 E.g.: distill the essence of 提取 … 的精华 alive: sensitive; alert Paragraph 9 disprove vs. disapprove:
disprove: prove to be contrary; refute 反驳， 证明有误 E.g.: (1). find a charge hard to disprove 发 现推翻某项罪名有困难 (2). He could not disprove the major contention of his opponents. 他驳不倒对方 的主要论点。 Compare disapprove: have a bad opinion for moral reasons (of) 不赞成；不同意； 不准许；否决；不赞同；不喜欢 (of)
E.g. (1). She disapproved the arrangements for the wedding. (2). The court disapproved the verdict. 法院 否定了陪审团的裁决。 (3). Jim’s father disapproved of his marriage to Mary. Jim 的父亲不赞成他与 Mary 的婚事。 (4). He disapproved of her. 他讨厌她。
expire: die; pass away; come to an end 死亡；过期 indigent: poor; lacking money and goods; poverty-stricken; penniless 贫 困的，贫穷的 Paragraph 10 march: walk with firm regular steps like a soldier 齐步前进, 行军
pace: walk with slow, steady steps, especially backwards and forwards 踱方步 patrol: go at regular times round (an area, building, etc.) to see that there is no trouble, that no one is trying to get in or out illegally, etc. 巡逻，巡查 stride: walk with long steps or cross with one long step 大踏步地走，跨
stalk: walk stiffly, proudly, or with long steps 高视阔步地走 strut: walk proudly or stiffly, especially with the chest pushed forward and trying to look important 趾高气扬地走，大摇大摆地走 tread: step on 踩, 践踏 tramp: walk (through or over) with firm heavy steps 用沉重的脚步行走
Paragraph 10 step out: (AmE) go outside or go somewhere ( 美口 ) 暂时走开 prance: move quickly, happily or proudly with a springing or dancing step 欢跃地走
prowl: (of an animal looking for food, or of a thief) move about (an area) quietly, trying not to be seen or heard 潜行，暗中徘徊 E.g.: beasts prowling after their prey 四处觅食的野兽
Paragraph 10 sidle: (up) walk as if ready to turn and go the other way, especially secretively or nervously （尤指鬼鬼祟祟地或胆怯地） 悄悄地走 E.g.: He sidled up to the stranger in the street and tried to sell him the stolen ring. 在街上，他鬼鬼祟祟地走到陌生人面前 企图向他兜售偷来的戒指。
Paragraph 10 creep: move slowly and quietly with the body close to the ground 匍匐前进，爬行； 蹑手蹑脚地走 E.g.: The cat crept silently towards the mouse. 猫悄悄地向老鼠爬过去。 The policeman crept up on the criminal and seized him from behind. 警察偷偷逼 近罪犯，从后面将他一把抓住。
Paragraph 10 plod: (especially along, on) walk slowly, especially with difficulty and great effort; trudge 沉重缓慢地走， 步履艰难 E.g.: The old man plods along, hardly able to lift each foot. 那老人步履艰难 地走着，双脚几乎都提不起来。
Paragraph 10 trudge: walk with heavy steps, slowly and with effort (plod) 步履艰难地走, 跋涉 E.g.: He had to trudge (for) 20 miles to get home. 他要跋涉 20 英里才回到家。 shuffle: walk by dragging one’s feet slowly along 曳足而行，拖着步子走
stagger: walk or move unsteadily and with great difficulty, almost falling 蹒 跚，摇晃，踉跄 E.g.: He was staggering along as if drunk. 他摇摇晃晃地向前走，好像喝 醉了酒一样。 toddle: walk with short unsteady steps, as a small child does 蹒跚行步， 东倒西歪地走
Paragraph 10 stroll: walk a short distance slowly or lazily, especially for pleasure 散步； 闲逛；溜达 ramble: (about, through, among) go on a long walk with no particular plan 漫游；漫步
Paragraph 10 E.g.: They rambled through the woods. 他们漫步 穿过树林。 We rambled about for hours in the old city. 我 们在古城漫游了几个小时。 roam: (through, around, about) wander without a very clear purpose 漫步；闲荡； 漫游 E.g.: At this height hyenas roamed about. 在这高度，有鬣狗四处游荡。
saunter: walk in an unhurried way, and especially in a confident manner (lounge) 闲逛；漫步 E.g.: I sauntered along the street with nothing to do. 我在街上闲逛，无所事事。 meander: (of people) wander in a slow easy way 漫步, 散步 (of rivers and streams) flow slowly, turning here and there （指河川）蜿蜒而流；迂回曲折地 前进
lounge: (especially about, around) move in a lazy, relaxed way, move in leisurely, indolent manner (saunter) 闲逛 E.g.: He lounged about the house, doing nothing but getting in our way while we were working. 我们工作时，他什么也不干， 在屋子里乱转，碍手碍脚的。 loiter: move on or move about, stopping often 走走停停；徘徊；闲逛 E.g.: The policemen saw someone loitering near the shop. 警察看见有人在商店附近徘 徊.
Paragraph 11 Question 1: What conclusion is drawn by the author in this paragraph? SA: A good writer is not measured by the extent of his vocabulary, but by his skill in finding the “mot juste”, the word that will hit the nail cleanly on the head.
Question : The writer begins his article with an analogy between the unskilled use of the hammer and the improper choice of words. Identify the places where the analogy is referred to in the rest of the article. SA: “We don’t have to look far afield to find evidence of bad carpentry in language.” (Paragraph 5)
“It is perhaps easier to be a good craftsman with wood and nails than a good craftsman with words.” (Paragraph 9) “A good carpenter is not distinguished by the number of his tools, but by the craftsmanship with which he uses them. So a good writer is not measured by the extent of his vocabulary, but by his skill in finding the ‘mot juste’, the word that will hit the nail cleanly on the head.” (Paragraph 11)
take courage: feel hopeful and confident about something E.g.: It is a challenging job; but take courage and work hard at it, and you’ll be rewarded.
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook 1. So with language; the good craftsman will choose words that drive home his point firmly and exactly. 2. Getting the word that is completely right for the writer’s purpose.
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook 3. Yes, I do. It sounds irrational that a person does not know what he himself thinks before he sees what he says, but, as a matter of fact, it is quite true that unless we have found the exact words to verbalize our own thoughts we can never be very sure of what our thoughts are, without words, our thoughts cannot be defined or stated in a clear and precise manner.
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook 4. “Malapropism” means the unintentional misuse of a word by confusing it with one that resembles it, such as human for humane, singularity for singleness. But the misuse of “imprison” is a different case. It is wrongly chosen because the user has failed to recognize its connotation.
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook 5. human = characterizing of, or relating to man humane = characterized by kindness, mercy, sympathy; thus: human action = action taken by man humane action = merciful action human killer = person that kills humans humane killer = that which kills but causes little pain
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook 6. Sensitive; alert 7. “We don’t have to look far afield to find evidence of bad carpentry in language.” (Paragraph 5) “It is perhaps easier to be a good craftsman with wood and nails than a good craftsman with words.” (Paragraph 9 )
VI. SA to Ex. I, P. 1, Workbook “A good carpenter is not distinguished by the number of his tools, but by the craftsmanship with which he uses them. So a good writer is not measured by the extent of his vocabulary, but by his skill in finding the ‘mot juste’, the word that will hit the nail cleanly on the head.” (Paragraph 11)
VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 2, Workbook 1. A writer who is particular about the exactness of an expression in English will never feel happy with a word which fails to express an idea accurately.
VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 2, Workbook 2. To a certain extent, the process of finding the right words to use is a process of perfection where you try to search for words that may most accurately express your thoughts and feelings, and words that may most effectively make your listeners and readers understand your thoughts and feelings.
VII. SA to Ex. II, P. 2, Workbook 3. Finding the most suitable word to use is in no sense easy. But there is nothing like the delight we shall experience when such a word is located. 4. Once we are able to use language accurately, we are in a position to fully understand our subject matter.
VIII. SA to Ex. III, P. 3, Workbook 1. After citing many facts and giving a number of statistical figures, he finally drove home his point.. 2. It took us half a year more or less to carry through the research project. 3. What he said was so subtle that we could hardly make out his true intention. 4. His new book looks squarely at the contemporary social problems.
VIII. SA to Ex. III, P. 3, Workbook 5. The younger generation today are very much alive to the latest information found on the Internet. 6. It is a matter of opinion whether a foreign language is more easily learned in one’s childhood or otherwise. 7. Never loose heart in the face of a setback; take courage and deal with it squarely. 8. Rice, meat, vegetables, and fruit constitute a balanced diet.