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THE FIGHT FOR DEMOCRACY AND THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR.

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Presentation on theme: "THE FIGHT FOR DEMOCRACY AND THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE FIGHT FOR DEMOCRACY AND THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR

2 THE REGIONS OF GREAT BRITAIN GREAT BRITAIN (INCLUDES ENGLAND SCOTLAND, WALES) THE UNITED KINGDOM (INCLUDES GRT. BRT. + N. IRELAND) THE BRITISH ISLES (INCLUDES UK + IRELAND) GREAT BRITAIN (INCLUDES ENGLAND SCOTLAND, WALES) THE UNITED KINGDOM (INCLUDES GRT. BRT. + N. IRELAND) THE BRITISH ISLES (INCLUDES UK + IRELAND)

3 ENGLISH SOCIETY s - England was becoming powerful. - It began to colonize and wealthy entrepreneurs emerged. - The wealthy and skilled fared well for themselves. - England was becoming powerful. - It began to colonize and wealthy entrepreneurs emerged. - The wealthy and skilled fared well for themselves. NOTE - N. America India Africa “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”

4 ENGLISH SOCIETY s - A class system divided England. - A/ UPPER CLASS - king, nobles, high church. - B/ MIDDLE CLASS - merchants, land owners, military, professionals. - C/ LOWER CLASS - ordinary workers - A class system divided England. - A/ UPPER CLASS - king, nobles, high church. - B/ MIDDLE CLASS - merchants, land owners, military, professionals. - C/ LOWER CLASS - ordinary workers Eng. class system.

5 THE ROLE OF RELIGION - Most of England was Protestant. - The official church was the Church of England or Anglican Church. - Supported by taxes and was seen as elaborate - There were many dissenters. - Protestants were stern and suspicious and opposed elaborate ceremonies & wealth. - ‘The Mayflower’ to N. Amer. - New England’. - Others entered parliament. - Calvanists wanted plain & simple service. - Roman Catholics and others were sometimes tolerated but at other times were fined or imprisoned. - Most of England was Protestant. - The official church was the Church of England or Anglican Church. - Supported by taxes and was seen as elaborate - There were many dissenters. - Protestants were stern and suspicious and opposed elaborate ceremonies & wealth. - ‘The Mayflower’ to N. Amer. - New England’. - Others entered parliament. - Calvanists wanted plain & simple service. - Roman Catholics and others were sometimes tolerated but at other times were fined or imprisoned.

6 WITCHES MISFITS WHO DID NOT FIT INTO SOCIETY. WOMEN UNMARRIED Intelligent Mathew Hopkins - Witch Finder General - Sentencing - innocent if drowned. - exposed as a fraud and executed. MISFITS WHO DID NOT FIT INTO SOCIETY. WOMEN UNMARRIED Intelligent Mathew Hopkins - Witch Finder General - Sentencing - innocent if drowned. - exposed as a fraud and executed.

7 THE EARLY STUARTS ELIZABETH I - Followed the Magna Carta signed in Monarch must rule lawfully. - Taxes approved by parliament. - Trial by jury. - died in Left England to JAMES I - Aka ‘James VI of Scotland’. ELIZABETH I - Followed the Magna Carta signed in Monarch must rule lawfully. - Taxes approved by parliament. - Trial by jury. - died in Left England to JAMES I - Aka ‘James VI of Scotland’.

8 JAMES I Ignored the Magna Carta and introduced the Divine Right of Kings => angered parliament. Intelligent but rude and obnoxious. Incompetent advisors. Duke of Buckingham. Ran out of money but parliament refused higher taxes unless they were granted more power. Died in 1625 from stomach problems => left a divided nation. Ignored the Magna Carta and introduced the Divine Right of Kings => angered parliament. Intelligent but rude and obnoxious. Incompetent advisors. Duke of Buckingham. Ran out of money but parliament refused higher taxes unless they were granted more power. Died in 1625 from stomach problems => left a divided nation.

9 CHARLES I Son of James Also believed in Divine Right. Extravagance angered the people. Also relied on the hated Duke of Buckingham His fathers favorite advisor. Led England into several disasters. Wars with France and Spain. Alienated all support. Son of James Also believed in Divine Right. Extravagance angered the people. Also relied on the hated Duke of Buckingham His fathers favorite advisor. Led England into several disasters. Wars with France and Spain. Alienated all support.

10 THE FIGHT WITH PARLIAMENT Charles’ extravagant life needed $ and parliament refused unless they were given their powers back. Charles tried to raise $ on his own. Ship Money - money for warships which was pocketed by Charles. Loans, mortgages, & tunnage (customs fees) Billeted soldiers Sold noble titles Used Court of Star Chamber to convict & imprison anyone who stood in his way. RESULTS - still needed $, parliament still unfriendly, Duke of Buckingham killed, Puritans destroyed his churches. Charles’ extravagant life needed $ and parliament refused unless they were given their powers back. Charles tried to raise $ on his own. Ship Money - money for warships which was pocketed by Charles. Loans, mortgages, & tunnage (customs fees) Billeted soldiers Sold noble titles Used Court of Star Chamber to convict & imprison anyone who stood in his way. RESULTS - still needed $, parliament still unfriendly, Duke of Buckingham killed, Puritans destroyed his churches. Duke of Buckingham

11 THE LONG PARLIAMENT By 1637, Charles had big problems and shut down the Short Parliament and created the Long Parliament. THE LONG PARLIAMENT -executed Charles’ trusted advisors Strafford and Laud. -Planned to pass the Grand Remonstrance (remove King’s powers). DILEMA – The Royal Prerogative allowed the King to act outside the law if an emergency. Was parliament breaking the law? Did the King have the right to rule as he saw fit? Who was in the wrong? Strafford Laud Even parliament was divided. The King saw his chance & sold the crown jewels to buy an army to fight back.

12 CIVIL WAR Royalists or Cavaliers Experienced riders & fighters. Had to win quick victory => no $$$. Royalists or Cavaliers Experienced riders & fighters. Had to win quick victory => no $$$. Local militia. Farmers etc. no experience. Controlled the navy. Allied with the Scots. New Model Army was led by Oliver Cromwell (Puritan) Called the Roundheads. CHARLES vs. PARLIAMENT CavaliersCromwell

13 RUMP PARLIAMENT The King lost, and all the King’s supporters (Presbyterians) are removed from parliament. The King is charged with treason (by the Puritans). The King lost, and all the King’s supporters (Presbyterians) are removed from parliament. The King is charged with treason (by the Puritans). Pride’s Purge – the Puritans drove all Presbyterians out of parliament

14 THE TRIAL OF THE KING King Charles was found guilty of treason and executed in NOTE – In 1649 treason was defined as “ the act of trying to overthrow the King. Is it possible for the King to overthrow himself? The execution of King Charles The Trial of Charles

15 Was it a sin?????

16 OLIVER CROMWELL THE LORD PROTECTOR Rump Parliament voted out Charles II (the rightful heir to England = Republic/Commonwealth the throne) “Might Makes Right.” Scottish & Irish (Ireland still suffers from Cromwell’s decisions) Presbyterians & Catholic. Anyone opposed. Even the Rump Parliament. Became a dictator. Issued the Blue Laws No dancing, X-mas, sports, etc. Rump Parliament voted out Charles II (the rightful heir to England = Republic/Commonwealth the throne) “Might Makes Right.” Scottish & Irish (Ireland still suffers from Cromwell’s decisions) Presbyterians & Catholic. Anyone opposed. Even the Rump Parliament. Became a dictator. Issued the Blue Laws No dancing, X-mas, sports, etc. NOTE – Cromwell died in He considered himself a failure as he opposed dictatorships.

17 THE RESTORATION A new parliament elected. Charles II invited to be King. Constitutional Monarchy established. Eliminated Blue Laws. “Tories” supported King / “Whigs’ opposed the King. Rump Parliament members were tortured. Cromwell’s body dug up & displayed as a warning to others. Parliament issued the Test Act – banned Catholics & made Church of England supreme. (Charles’ own brother = Catholic) A new parliament elected. Charles II invited to be King. Constitutional Monarchy established. Eliminated Blue Laws. “Tories” supported King / “Whigs’ opposed the King. Rump Parliament members were tortured. Cromwell’s body dug up & displayed as a warning to others. Parliament issued the Test Act – banned Catholics & made Church of England supreme. (Charles’ own brother = Catholic) After Cromwell died: Charles II

18 THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Charles’ successor/brother, James II, was Catholic. James II believed in the Divine Right of Kings. People rebelled. Bloody Assizes – James’ Reign Of Terror. Executed the rebels. Charles’ successor/brother, James II, was Catholic. James II believed in the Divine Right of Kings. People rebelled. Bloody Assizes – James’ Reign Of Terror. Executed the rebels. After the death of Charles II problems arose. The Glorious Revolution -James II was forced to abdicate. -Mary and William of Orange were invited to be the new King and Queen. -Bill Of Rights implemented. James II Mary & William 1689


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