Raphael Lemkin, 1900-1958 Axis Rule in Occupied Europe
Lemkin’s definition of genocide Any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, such as: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Extremely violent societies (2010) Christian Gerlach views mass violence as an expansive, multilayered phenomenon emerging in the midst of profound socioeconomic change and involving both state and civilian actors, past and present social relations, numerous victim groups, gradations of perpetrators and victims, and diverse methods of violence
German South-West Africa (1904) German East Africa and Maji-Maji revolt Armenian genocide (1915)
Armenia, 1915 A century of silence, Raffi Khatchadourian, New Yorker, January 5, 2015 http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/01/05/century-silence
Gulag Historiography Gulag is actually an abbreviation, Glavnoe upravlenie ‘ispravidelno-trudovikh lagerei (Main administration of corrective labor camps) – Pre-1991 obsession with numbers – Based heavily on memoirs (Solzhenitsyn) Recent directions – Everyday life – Economics – Interaction between gulag and society
Origins and Formation of the Gulag Imperial Russia: Katorga (forced labor camps) 1918: Cheka creates Solovki Special Purpose Camp (SLON) – Prisoners mostly political – Corrective labor – Endorsed by Gorkii in 1929 Mass expansion from early 1930s Organized under OGPU in 1930 Included: – Jails, special settlements, prisons, labor colonies Our Gulag: Corrective labor camps – 1940: 53 camps, 1.3 million people
Nazi Germany Removal and reeducation of political opponents Building the folk community Brutalization of warfare and decisiontaking for the annihilation of the Jews Murder of 2 mio Soviet POWs Rational or ideological?
Indonesia Murder of over half a million of Indonesian Communists (KPI) in 1965 Sukarto’s regime killed other groups before Family descendants often disadvantaged until today
Conclusions The violent 20 th century? When and how does extreme violence emerge? Factors: ethnicity and class, but more importantly: interplay factors and historical set-up Importance sexual violence How to write about extreme violence?