Crimes A wrong committed against society defined in a statute and punishable by fines and/or imprisonment -- and, in some cases, by death. Depending on their degree of seriousness, crimes are classified as felonies or misdemeanors.
Classification of Crimes Felony –A crime—such as murder, rape, or robbery—that carries the most severe sanction, ranging from one or more years in prison to forfeiture of one’s life.
Classification of Crimes Misdemeanor –A lesser crime—such a disorderly conduct, trespass, or petty theft— punishable by a fine and/or imprisonment for up to one year.
Elements of a Crime Two elements are required for a person to be convicted of a crime: –Performance of a prohibited act (actus reus). –A culpable mental state (mens rea).
Property Crimes Burglary - Unlawful entry into a building with the intent to commit another crime Larceny - Theft - Taking another person’s property with the intent to deprive the owner of the property Robbery - Taking another person’s property by force or threat of force Cyber Fraud-Fraud using the internet
White Collar Crimes Embezzlement-Fraudulent appropriation of property already entrusted to you Mail and Wire Fraud-Mailing or causing to be mailed a writing to be used to defraud or an organized scheme to defraud by false pretenses Bribery- Giving something of value to influence someone to create private gain (usually a public official) Theft of Trade Secrets (Chapter 5) Insider Trading (Chapter 21).
Organized Crime Money Laundering-Engaging in financial transactions to conceal the identity, source or destination of illegally gained funds Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO)-In order for an offender to fall under the RICO rules and be charged with racketeering, he or she must violate two of 35 statutes within 10 years, and the violations must be linked in some way
Defenses Justifiable Use of Force/Self-Defense –The privilege to take reasonably necessary steps to protect one’s self or another person against injury by a third party.
Defenses Justifiable Use of Force- Deadly force-only in cases where there is a reasonable belief that imminent death or major bodily harm will occur Nondeadly force- Can use the amount of non-lethal force necessary to protect themselves, another person, or property
Defenses Duress- Unlawful pressure causing a person to perform an act that they would not otherwise perform - Must be a threat of bodily harm or death - Harm threatened must be greater that the harm of the crime -Threat must be immediate and inescapable - Defendant must be involved in a stiuation to no fault of his own
Defenses Insanity –due to mental disease or defect –a person cannot appreciate the difference between right and wrong and –conform his/her conduct to the requirements of the law.
Defenses Entrapment –Generally requires that the official both suggest the wrongful act and then induce the accused to commit it.
Constitutional Rights The Fourth Amendment provides protection from unreasonable searches and seizures and requires that a search or arrest warrant shall issue only upon probable cause.
Constitutional Rights The Fifth Amendment guarantees –due process of law, –protects against double jeopardy, and –prohibits self-incrimination
Constitutional Rights The Sixth Amendment guarantees the rights to: –speedy trial, –trial by jury, –public trial, –confronting witnesses, and –counsel.
How Are Our Rights Protected? The Exclusionary Rule –Any evidence obtained in violation of the accused’s Fourth, Fifth, and/or Sixth Amendment rights, and –Any evidence derived from illegally obtained evidence.
How Are Our Rights Protected? The Miranda Rule –Individuals who are arrested must be informed of certain constitutional rights, including their right to remain silent (i.e., not to incriminate themselves) and their right to counsel.
Cyber Crime Cyber Theft – Identify theft and fraudulently conducting financial transactions. Cyber Stalking – Stalking in cyberspace putting a person in reasonable fear for safety. Hacking/Destructive Programming – Destruction of computer hardware or software, sending “viruses”, etc CAN-SPAM Act – Controlling the Assault of Non- Solicited Pornography and Marketing- Allows unsolicited emails but they cannot be misleading