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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Patterns of Crime Chapter 3
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Classifications of Crime ► Violent crime ► Property crime ► Crimes Against the Public Order
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Violent Crime ► Homicide ► Sexual assault ► Robbery ► Assault ► Hate crime
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Homicide Two types of homicide: 1. Culpable Homicide Murder Manslaughter infanticide 2. Non-Culpable Homicide Justifiable homicide (e.g. police) Excusable homicide (e.g. self-defence)
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Sexual Assault ► Legislation focuses on the violent nature of the act. ► Criminal Code of Canada outlines three levels of sexual assault based on degree of violence: ► Level 1 sexual assault ► Level 2 sexual assault ► Level 3 sexual assault
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Robbery ► A violent personal crime. ► Committed in the presence of a victim. ► Involves threatened or actual use of force or violence. ► Involves theft or attempted theft.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Assault The intentional or threatened application of force on another person without consent. ► Majority of assaults perpetrated by adult males. ► Victims are as likely to be female as male.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Categories of Assault 1. Level 1 assault ► Includes punching, slapping, pushing etc. 2. Level 2 assault ► Use of weapon or results in bodily harm 3. Level 3 assault ► Wound, maim, disfigure or endanger life of victim 4. Other assault ► E.g. use of force against peace officer
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Hate Crimes ► Courts consider hate motivation an aggravating circumstance when sentencing. ► Number of hate crimes measured using: 1.Victimization Surveys 2.Police-reported Data ► Approximately 4% of criminal incidents were motivated by hate.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Property Crime ► Breaking and Entering ► Theft ► Motor-Vehicle Theft ► Offences Involving Motor Vehicles ► Counterfeiting
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Breaking and Entering ► The invasion of personal territory or a workspace. ► Often results in theft or destruction of property. ► The UCR categorizes into three types: 1. Residential 2. Business 3. Other
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Theft ► Categories of theft included in Criminal Code of Canada: Theft of gas, electricity or telecommunications Theft of credit card ► Severity is determined by monetary value of property taken Theft over $ Theft $ and under
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Motor-Vehicle Theft ► Not included in the Criminal Code category: Airplanes Trains Boats Spacecrafts ► Often perpetrated by male youth. ► Carjaking Forced abdication of the vehicle by its owner to the felon. No Criminal Code section for this offence. Usually dealt with as a robbery.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Offences Involving Motor Vehicles Criminal Code offences include: Dangerous operation of a motor vehicle Failure to stop at the scene of an accident Operating while impaired Driving while disqualified
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Counterfeiting ► Any unauthorized reproduction of something with the intention that it be accepted as genuine. ► Commonly refers to: Reproduction of currency Forging of credit cards or debit cards Documents for identification (e.g. passport) Any paper that represents value (e.g. stamps)
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Crimes Against the Public Order ProstitutionIncludes: Communicating for the purposes of buying or selling sexual services. Running a bawdy house. Living on the avails of prostitution.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Inc Crimes Against the Public Order Illicit drugs Controlled Drugs and Substances Act Two categories of offences: ► Supply offences ► Possession offences
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