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SAFER DESIGN PRINCIPLES Peter Boyle Principal Urban Designer.

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Presentation on theme: "SAFER DESIGN PRINCIPLES Peter Boyle Principal Urban Designer."— Presentation transcript:

1 SAFER DESIGN PRINCIPLES Peter Boyle Principal Urban Designer

2 The Costs of Crime The cost of crime to the Victorian community in 2009-2010 is estimated to be just over $9.8 billion. This amount is equivalent to $1678 per person in Victoria in 2009-2010. This amount is equivalent to 3.4% of Gross State Product in Victoria in 2009-2010.

3 The Costs of Crime Crime typeEstimated Cost in 2010 ($m)Percentage of Total Costs Crimes Against the Person Homicide397.64.28 Assault2042.2 Sexual Assault73.40.75 Robbery820.88 Total7578.15 Crimes Against Property Burglary364.83.71 Theft of Vehicles133.51.36 Theft from Motor Vehicle149.11.52 Theft from Shop287.92.93 Other Theft64.40.66 Property Damage365.63.72 Arson1090.611.1 Deception2143.521.81 Total4599.446.8 Drug Offences 468.84.77 Other Costs Criminal Justice2689.727.36 Victim Assistance311.13.17 Security Industry8388.53 Insurance Administration1651.68 Total4003.840.73 TOTAL9829100

4 “We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us” Winston Churchill The built environment has an impact on crime patterns, and hence, sustainability Mistakes made in planning and design are “built in” and not easily changed Sustainable communities are less likely to fail

5 A German university campus setting. Factors measured: Physical environment Psychological factors Biological sex Previous experiences Variables: Opportunities for escape / entrapment Opportunities for concealment Lighting levels Blobaum & Huneke, Perceived Danger in Urban Public Space Environment and Behaviour Research, Jan 2005 Perceived danger in public space

6 Perceived danger in public space: The impacts of physical features and personal factors Findings: Anticipated entrapment is strongest predictor of perception of danger Biological sex is next strongest predictor; followed by concealment and lighting What works with what? 1.Where low entrapment potential, then increasing lighting important 2.Where high entrapment potential exists, then reducing concealment is important (increasing lighting is not effective here) Blobaum & Huneke, 2005

7 Opposing Urban Paradigms Enclosure model Oscar Newman: Defensible Space – Strangers as a source of danger – Closed and impermeable environments – A patchwork of inward looking ‘defensible’ enclaves

8 Opposing Urban Paradigms Encounter model Jane Jacobs: Death and Life of Great American Cities – Strangers as a source of safety- “eyes on the street” – Open and permeable environments – A continuous network of ‘doubly constituted’ streets


10 Enclosure Model Enclosure Model provides: Internal security A series of separate enclaves But what happens outside or in between these? And what about capacity for change?

11 Enclosure Model Attempted abduction of a woman walking along Sunshine Avenue, Keilor Downs The Age 08/01/2004, p.3 Case Study: Sunshine Ave., Keilor Downs

12 Safety and Surveillance Police Station Case Study: Sunshine Ave., Keilor Downs

13 Safe........but for whom?

14 Encounter Model Encounter Model provides: Permeable street network connecting neighbourhoods Convenient access for different transport modes Clear distinction between public and private realms Ability to see and be seen

15 Neighbourhood Conditions and the Built Environment Low High Built environment opportunities for crime Level of physical and social disorder Paulsen, D, (2013). Crime and Planning, Building Socially Sustainable Communities, p.17

16 Safer Neighbourhood Design Maximise connections between neighbourhoods ‘Walkable neighbourhoods’ and active neighbourhood centres - social integration Legible network of streets Diverse and active neighbourhoods Maximise visibility & surveillance of public space - make places feel safe

17 Urban Permeability Sale, Victoria Subdivision Design

18 Neighbourhood Design Neighbourhood designs based on a hierarchical street network contributes to: Induced private vehicle traffic Compromised access and amenity for other transport modes incl walking and cycling a reduction of streets that link neighbourhoods from ‘centre to edge An urban structure with limited adaptability

19 Street Design Direct, comfortable street networks provide people with a choice of safe routes to destinations Increases actual pedestrian safety and perceptions of safety

20 Street Design: Culs–de-sac

21 Limit the number of culs de sac in any development Culs de sac should be no longer than 75 metres maximise visibility from adjoining streets Avoid “leaky” ends

22 Size: The park is large and attracts many users, some of whom become victims. Suitable targets: The park contains a lot of things particularly vulnerable to theft or vandalism. Location: The park is close to an area with a high crime rate. Repeat victims: The park attracts a few victims involved in a large proportion of crimes. Crime attractor: The park attracts many offenders or a few high-rate offenders. Poor design: The park's physical layout makes offending easy, rewarding, or risk-free. Poor management: Management practices or processes enable or encourage offending. Risky Parks

23 Problems with Parks Narrow, unobserved footpaths hemmed in between high solid fences and dense planting Dense tree and shrub planting that obscures the view of open spaces from adjacent houses Footpaths that converge in hidden spaces, leaving no option to avoid the secluded areas Secluded areas that encourage misuse, posing threats to pedestrians using footpaths and adjoining property Children's play areas hidden from view Footpath alignments and dense planting that obstruct sight lines along routes to the exit Houses whose backs face the park and don't allow useful surveillance of the area Pedestrian routes that include unobserved areas blocked by high fences City of Nottingham: Design Guide for Community Safety in Residential Areas

24 What’s a good park? Parents take children there Females go there as often as males Elderly people regularly visit the park Workers have lunch or take breaks there

25 Parks and Open Space Back fences facing open space No direct connection or integration with surrounding neighbourhood Low level natural surveillance

26 400m East Reservoir Retrofitting parks for safety


28 5 Principles for Safer Design 1.Surveillance Maximise surveillance of the public environment 2.Access, Movement and Sightlines Provide safe movement, good connections and access 3.Activity Maximise activity in public places 4.Ownership Clearly define private and public space responsibilities 5.Management and Maintenance Manage public space to ensure that it is attractive and well used

29 Questions?

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