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Discovering Computers 2008 Fundamentals Fourth Edition Chapter 10 Computer Security, Ethics, and Privacy.

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Presentation on theme: "Discovering Computers 2008 Fundamentals Fourth Edition Chapter 10 Computer Security, Ethics, and Privacy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discovering Computers 2008 Fundamentals Fourth Edition Chapter 10 Computer Security, Ethics, and Privacy

2 Chapter 10 Objectives Identify ways to safeguard against computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, botnets, denial of service attacks, back doors, and spoofing Discuss techniques to prevent unauthorized computer access and use Identify safeguards against hardware theft and vandalism Explain the ways to protect against software theft and information theft Discuss the types of devices available that protect computers from system failure Identify risks and safeguards associated with wireless communications Discuss issues surrounding information privacy Discuss ways to prevent health-related disorders and injuries due to computer use Next

3 Computer Security Risks What is a computer security risk? p Fig Next  Event or action that causes loss of or damage to computer system

4 Internet and Network Attacks What are viruses, worms, and Trojan horses? p. 364 Next Virus Virus is a potentially damaging computer program Worm Worm copies itself repeatedly, using up resources and possibly shutting down computer or network Trojan horse Trojan horse hides within or looks like legitimate program until triggered Can spread and damage files Does not replicate itself on other computers

5 Internet and Network Attacks How can a virus spread through an message? p. 365 Fig Next Step 1. Unscrupulous programmers create a virus program. They hide the virus in a Word document and attach the Word document to an message. Step 2. They use the Internet to send the message to thousands of users around the world. Step 3b. Other users do not recognize the name of the sender of the message. These users do not open the message -- instead they immediately delete the message. These users’ computers are not infected with the virus. Step 3a. Some users open the attachment and their computers become infected with the virus.

6 Internet and Network Attacks Video: Attack of the Mobile Viruses Next CLICK TO START

7 Internet and Network Attacks How can you protect your system from a macro virus? p. 365 Next  Set macro security level in applications that allow you to write macros  Set macro security level so that warning displays that document contains macro  Macros are instructions saved in an application, such as word processing or spreadsheet program

8 Internet and Network Attacks What is an antivirus program? p. 365 Next  Identifies and removes computer viruses  Most also protect against worms and Trojan horses

9 Internet and Network Attacks What is a virus signature? p. 366 Fig Next  Specific pattern of virus code  Also called virus definition  Antivirus programs look for virus signatures

10 Internet and Network Attacks What are some tips for preventing virus, worm, and Trojan horse infections? p. 366 Next Install a personal firewall program If the antivirus program flags an attachment as infected, delete the attachment immediately Set the macro security in programs so you can enable or disable macros Never open an attachment unless you are expecting it and it is from a trusted source Install an antivirus program on all of your computers Check all downloaded programs for viruses, worms, or Trojan horses Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Virus Hoaxes below Chapter 10

11 Keeps file in separate area of hard disk Internet and Network Attacks What happens if an antivirus program identifies an infected file? p. 366 Next Attempts to remove any detected virus Quarantines infected files that it cannot remove

12 Internet and Network Attacks What are a denial of service attack, back door and spoofing? p. 367 Next A denial of service attack is an assault which disrupts computer access to an Internet service such as the Web or A back door is a program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security controls when accessing a computer resource Spoofing is a technique intruders use to make their network or Internet transmission appear legitimate to a victim computer or network

13 Internet and Network Attacks What is spoofing? p. 367 Next Makes a network or Internet Transmission appear legitimate IP spoofing occurs when an intruder computer fools a network into believing its IP address is from a trusted source Perpetrators of IP spoofing trick their victims into interacting with a phony Web site

14 Internet and Network Attacks What is a firewall? p. 367 Fig Next  Security system consisting of hardware and/or software that prevents unauthorized network access

15 Internet and Network Attacks What is a personal firewall utility? p. 368 Next  Program that protects personal computer and its data from unauthorized intrusions  Monitors transmissions to and from computer  Informs you of attempted intrusion Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Personal Firewall Software below Chapter 10

16 Internet and Network Attacks How can companies protect against hackers? p. 368 Next Intrusion detection software analyzes network traffic, assesses system vulnerabilities, and identifies intrusions and suspicious behavior

17 Unauthorized Access and Use What is a user name? p. 369 Fig Next  Unique combination of characters that identifies user  Password is private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources

18 Unauthorized Access and Use How can you make your password more secure? p. 369 Fig Next  Longer passwords provide greater security

19 Unauthorized Access and Use What is a possessed object? p. 370 Next  Item that you must carry to gain access to computer or facility  Often used with numeric password called personal identification number (PIN)

20 Unauthorized Access and Use What is a biometric device? p. 370 Fig Next  Authenticates person’s identity using personal characteristic  Fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, signature, and iris

21 Hardware Theft and Vandalism What are hardware theft and hardware vandalism? p. 371 Fig Next  Hardware theft is act of stealing computer equipment  Cables sometimes used to lock equipment  Some notebook computers use passwords, possessed objects, and biometrics as security methods  For PDAs and smart phones, you can password-protect the device  Hardware vandalism is act of defacing or destroying computer equipment

22 Software Theft What is software theft? p. 372 Next Act of stealing or illegally copying software or intentionally erasing programs Software piracy is illegal duplication of copyrighted software Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Software Piracy below Chapter 10

23 Software Theft What is a license agreement? p. 372 Fig Next  Right to use software  Single-user license agreement allows user to install software on one computer, make backup copy, and sell software after removing from computer

24 Software Theft What is product activation? p. 373 Next Product activation allows user to input product identification number online or by phone and receive unique installation identification number

25 Information Theft What is encryption? p. 373 Fig Next  Safeguards against information theft  Process of converting plaintext (readable data) into ciphertext (unreadable characters)  Encryption key (formula) often uses more than one method  To read the data, the recipient must decrypt, or decipher, the data Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Encryption below Chapter 10

26 Digital signature is encrypted code attached to message to verify identity of sender Freeware for personal, non- commercial use Information Theft What are methods for securing messages? p. 374 Next Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is popular encryption program

27 Secure site Secure site is Web site that uses encryption to secure data Information Theft How do Web browsers provide secure data transmission? p. 374 Next Digital certificate Digital certificate is notice that guarantees Web site is legitimate Many Web browsers use encryption Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Digital Certificates below Chapter 10

28 Information Theft What is a certificate authority (CA)? p. 374 Next  Authorized person or company that issues and verifies digital certificates  Users apply for digital certificate from CA

29 System Failure What is a system failure? p. 374 Next Caused by aging hardware, natural disasters, or electrical power disturbances Can cause loss of hardware, software, data, or information Prolonged malfunction of computer

30 System Failure What is a surge protector? p Figs –10-14 Next  Protects computer and equipment from electrical power disturbances  Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is surge protector that provides power during power loss Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Uninterruptible Power Supply below Chapter 10

31 Backing Up — The Ultimate Safeguard What is a backup? p. 375 Next Duplicate of file, program, or disk Full backup Full backup all files in computer Selective backup Selective backup select which files to back up Three-generation backup Three-generation backup preserves three copies of important files In case of system failure or corrupted files, restore files by copying to original location

32 Wireless Security How can I ensure my wireless communication is secure? p. 376 Next  Secure your wireless access point (WAP)  WAP should not broadcast your network name  Enable Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)  i conforms to the government’s security standards and uses more sophisticated encryption than both WPA and WEP

33 Ethics and Society What are computer ethics? p Next Intellectual property rights—rights to which creators are entitled for their work Software theft Information accuracy Information privacy Unauthorized use of computers and networks Moral guidelines that govern use of computers and information systems Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Digital Rights Management below Chapter 10

34 Information Privacy What is information privacy? p. 379 and 384 Next Legal for employers to use monitoring software programs Difficult to maintain today because data is stored online Employee monitoring is using computers to observe employee computer use Right of individuals and companies to restrict collection and use of information about them

35 Information Privacy What are some ways to safeguard personal information? p. 379 Next Fill in only the necessary information on rebate, warranty, and registration forms Avoid shopping club and buyers cards Install a cookie manager to filter cookies Inform merchants that you do not want them to distribute your personal information Limit the amount of information you provide to Web sites; fill in only required information Clear your history file when you are finished browsing Set up a free account; use this address for merchant forms Turn off file and print sharing on your Internet connection Install a personal firewall Sign up for filtering through your Internet service provider or use an antispam program, such as Brightmail Do not reply to spam for any reason Surf the Web anonymously with a program such as Freedom Web Secure or through an anonymous Web site such as Anonymizer.com

36 Information Privacy What is an electronic profile? p. 380 Next  Data collected when you fill out form on Web  Merchants sell your electronic profile  Often you can specify whether you want personal information distributed

37 Information Privacy What is a cookie? p Next Set browser to accept cookies, prompt you to accept cookies, or disable cookies Some Web sites sell or trade information stored in your cookies Small file on your computer that contains data about you User preferences Interests and browsing habits How regularly you visit Web sites

38 Information Privacy How do cookies work? p. 380 Fig Next

39 Information Privacy What are spyware, adware, and spam? p Fig Next  Spyware is program placed on computer without user’s knowledge  Adware is a program that displays online advertisements  Spam is unsolicited message sent to many recipients Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Spam below Chapter 10

40 Information Privacy How can you control spam? p. 382 Next Collects spam in central location that you can view any time Service that blocks messages from designated sources filtering Sometimes removes valid messages Attempts to remove spam Anti-spam program

41 Information Privacy What is phishing? p. 381 Next Scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking that attempts to obtain your personal information

42 Information Privacy What privacy laws have been enacted? p. 383 Fig Next

43 Information Privacy What privacy laws have been enacted? (cont’d) p. 383 Fig Next

44 Information Privacy What is content filtering? p. 384 Fig Next  Process of restricting access to certain material  Internet Content Rating Association (ICRA) provides rating system of Web content  Web filtering software restricts access to specified sites

45 Computer vision syndrome (CVS)—eye and vision problems Health Concerns of Computer Use What are some health concerns of computer use? p Next Repetitive strain injury (RSI) Computer addiction—when computer consumes entire social life Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon due to repeated motion Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)—inflammation of nerve that connects forearm to palm

46 Health Concerns of Computer Use What precautions can prevent tendonitis or carpal tunnel syndrome? p. 385 Fig Next  Take frequent breaks during computer session  Use wrist rest  Exercise hands and arms  Minimize number of times you switch between mouse and keyboard

47 Health Concerns of Computer Use How can you ease eyestrain when working at the computer? p. 386 Fig Next

48 Health Concerns of Computer Use What is ergonomics? p. 386 Fig Next  Applied science devoted to comfort, efficiency, and safety in workplace keyboard height: 23” to 28” feet flat on floor adjustable height chair with 4 or 5 legs for stability elbows at 90° and arms and hands parallel to floor

49 Health Concerns of Computer Use What is green computing? p. 387 Fig Next  Reducing electricity and environmental waste while using computer Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 10, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Green Computing below Chapter 10

50 Summary of Computers and Society, Security, Privacy, and Ethics Potential computer risks Safeguards that schools, business, and individuals can implement to minimize these risks Wireless security risks and safeguards Ethical issues surrounding information accuracy, intellectual property rights, and information privacy Computer-related health issues, their preventions, and ways to keep the environment healthy Chapter 10 Complete


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