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Cyber Crime and Technology

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1 Cyber Crime and Technology
The technological revolution has provided new tools to misappropriate funds, damage property and sell illicit materials-the cyber crime, a new breed of offenses that involves theft/destruction of information, resources or funds utilizing computers, computer network, and the internet.

2 Cyber Crime The vast network has now become a target for illegal activities and enterprise—the actions referred to as “cyber crime,” any criminal act that involves communication, computers and internet network. Internet coupled with powerful computers provide wide range of global services ranging from entertainment and communication to research and education. At the same time some cyber crimes use modern technology to accumulate goods and services.

3 Cyber Crime Cyber Theft: range from illegal copying of copy righted material to using technology to commit traditional theft-based offenses such as larceny and fraud. Cyber Vandalism: technological destruction—malicious attack at disturbing, defacing and destroying technology that they find offensive. Cyber terrorism: acts that are aimed at undermining the social, economic and political system of an enemy by destroying its electronic infrastructure and disrupting its economy.

4 Cyber Theft Cyber Crime for Profit
COMPUTER FRAUD: It includes theft of information, including software that is copied for profit. SALAMI SLICE: fraud-the perpetrator carefully skins small sums from the balance of the large number of accounts in order to bypass internal controls and escape detection. SOFTWARE THEFT-it led to huge illegal market depriving authors of very significant revenues. MANIPULATION of accounts in banking system has a has as long list as the criminal’s imagination. ATMs are now attracting the attention of the cyber criminals looking for easy profits.

5 Cyber Theft DISTRIBUTION OF ILLEGAL SEXUAL MATERIAL: It has revitalized the porn industry. Internet is an ideal venue for selling and distributing obscene material and computer is the ideal device for storing and viewing it. In the name of adult entertainment sometimes legal borders are crossed by peddling access to child pornography. Credit card verification service acts as an electronic gateway to the pictures and movies of minors engaged in sexually explicit conduct. In the well known case of “Landslide” Reedy, the owner of the company was sentenced to life imprisonment but it has been difficult to control internet pornography.

6 Cyber Theft DENIAL of SERVICE ATTACK. It is an attempt to extort money from legitimate users of the internet service by threatening to prevent the users from having access to the service. This done by flooding the site with millions of bogus messages. Unless the site operator pays the extortion, the attacker keeps up interference, until the real consumer becomes frustrated and abandon the site. This crime can even destroy the businesses.

7 Cyber Thefts ILLEGAL COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT: Groups of individuals working together illegally obtain software, then “crack” or “rip” its copyright protection, before posting it on the internet for other members to use: this is called WAREZ. Frequently the pirated copies reach the internet days and weeks before the legitimate product is commercially available. File Sharing is another form of illegal infringement, it allows internet users to download music and other material without paying the artists and the companies their rightful royalties. MEDIA PIRACY is the use of recording equipment to make copies of fils while in movie theaters.

8 Cyber Theft INTERNET SECURITIES FRAUD: It includes market manipulation, when individual tries to control the price of stock by interfering with the natural forces of supply and demand-either by “pump & dump” or “cyber smear”. In the first one erroneous and deceptive information is posted online to make unsuspecting investors to become interested in stocks, and sell previously purchased stock at inflated price. Cyber smear is reverse of the pump and dump, when negative information is spread online, driving down the price and enabling the people buy at artificially low price, before the company officers inflate the price.

9 Cyber Theft IDENTITY THEFT: when a person uses internet to steal someone’s identity to open a new credit card account or conduct some other financial transaction. PHISHING is when illegal access is gained to victims personal information. Victim is informed about the problems in his account and suggested to fix it. Once all the personal information, including social security number is provided, they go ahead with (1) getting access to bank account and credit card, and buy things with those accounts. (2) open new account without the victim’s knowledge (3) implant viruses into their software that forwards their s to other recipients.

10 Cyber Theft E-TAILING FRAUD: Illegally buying or selling merchandise. E-tailing scams involve failure to deliver promised purchase or services or substituting the cheaper or used material for higher quality purchases. They sometime involve buyer fraud. It involves top of the line electronic equipment over the internet, then purchasing similar-looking cheaper quality. The cheaper item is then returned to the E-Tailer after switching the bar code and the boxes with the more expensive unit. The buyer gets the refund for the higher quality product.

11 Cyber Theft CHAIN LETTERS: Victims are sent official looking letter requesting cooperation by sending a report to five friends or relatives. Those who respond are then asked to pay to keep the chain going. FIND OUT ANYTHING ON ANYONE: Offered to buy a CD program that you can use to find out personal information on someone. What are always being sold are the public records, and the seller someone who wants an access to the credit account number.

12 Cyber Vandalism Her the cyber criminals may not be motivated by greed or profit but by the desire for revenge, destruction and to achieve malicious intent. It ranges from sending destructive viruses and worms to terrorist attacks designed to destroy important computer networks. They exhibit their technical powers and superiority. Some wish to highlight the vulnerability of computer security systems, or just spy on other people’s financial and private information.

13 Cyber Vandalism WORMS and VIRUSES: the virus destroys the existing program. Virus spreads from one computer to another when user sends out an infected file through , a network or a disk. Worms are similar to viruses but use computer network or internet to self-replicate and “send themselves” to the other users via without the aid of the operator. The damage caused by the worms and viruses can be considerable. The Melissa virus in 1999 disrupted service around the globe when posted to an internet news group, causing more than $80 million in damage.

14 Cyber Vandalism TROJAN HORSES: It contains illicit codes that can damage the system. Hackers install it and claim that it is an antivirus program, as it is opened the virus spreads in the computer system. Trojan horse do not replicate themselves as viruses but can be as destructive. LOGIC BOMBS: it is secretly attached to a computer system, monitors the network output, and waits for a particular signal such as date to appear, also known as “slag code”. It is a delayed action virus and can cause problems ranging from displaying or printing a spurious message to deleting or corrupting data. In 2005, a company employee who had an administrative level access to the company’s computer system, by putting a malicious data caused more than $100, 000 in damage to the company.

15 Cyber Vandalism SPAM: an unsolicited advertisement or promotional material, comes in the form of unwanted message. For example they may launch sexually explicit website and find its way to minors, or offering something like free software or electronic game. When the recipient opens or downloads the attachment a virus may be launched that can corrupt the victims computer. Sending spam is a crime and even lead to a prison sentence when it causes serious harm to network. In 2005 Allen Eric received four years prison term convicted of 79 counts of spam.

16 Cyber Vandalism WEB DEFACEMENT: It occurs when a computer hacker intrudes on another person’s website by inserting or substituting codes that expose website visitors to misleading or provocative information. It can range from installing humorous graffiti to sabotaging or corrupting the site. Almost all the defacement attacks are designed to vandalize web pages rather than to bring profits to the intruders. Sometimes they are just trying to impress the hackers community with their skills.

17 Cyber Vandalism CYBER STALKING: It refers to the use of internet, or other electronic communication devices to stalk another person. The stalkers pursue minors through online chat rooms, establish a relationship with the child, and later make contact for the purpose of engaging in criminal sexual activities. Others harass their victims electronically, by sending repeated threatening and harassing messages without being physically present at a computer terminal.

18 Cyber Vandalism CYBER SPYING: It is manufacturing, sending, and advertising a surreptitious inception device. Through this the purchasers through website are electronically redirected to the creator’s computer. An electronic greeting card or is sent to the victim. Once the is opened the spy installs itself to the computer and records all their activities including s sent & received, website visited and password entered. It gives the purchaser ability to remotely control the victim’s computer, including accessing, changing and deleting files, and turning on web-enabled cameras connected to victim’s computers.

19 Cyber Vandalism CYBER ESPOINAGE: Intelligence agencies around the world are now employing hackers to penetrate secure computer network at sensitive military bases, defense contractors and aerospace companies in order to steal important data. Chinese have been able to penetrate sensitive computers, enter hidden sections of the hard drives, zip up files and transmit data to way stations in South Korea, Hong Kong or Taiwan before sending it to mainland China. The spy ring known as Titan Rain is the biggest threat faced by computer network in U.S. Similar attacks have been launched in Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

20 CYBER TERRORISM Cyber Crime with Political Motives
To integrate terrorist goals with cyber capabilities is now another challenge faced by the Justice System. Cyber terrorism can be viewed as an effort by covert forces to disrupt the intersection between the virtual electronic reality of computers and the physical world. It is a premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs and data which results violence against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents. By using the computer network tools critical national infrastructure is shut down to intimidate government or civilian population.

21 Cyber terrorism The infrastructure at the risk of attack would be:
Water Treatment Plants Electric Plants and Dams Oil refineries & Nuclear Power Plants. These industries all provide vital services to the society to allow people to go about their daily lives. Hackers could make a dam overflow, cause damage to refineries, or nuclear power plant by shutting down safeguards in the system that prevent catastrophic meltdown.

22 Why Terrorism in Cyber Space?
It is a handy battlefield, an attack can strike directly at a target-the economy of the enemy. It can destroy or reduce economic growth, creating an inflationary economy, in return reducing the tax revenue. With staggered economy the social programs can not be funded as more funds will be devoted to military/security to keep the terrorists at bay. These outcomes weaken the terrorist target and undermine its resolve to continue to resist.

23 Why Cyber Space? It is more efficient and less dangerous than the traditional form of terrorist activity. There is no loss of life and no need to infiltrate enemy’s territory. Can commit crimes from any place in the world, with minimal cost. Terrorist organizations do not lack for skilled labor to mount cyber attacks. There are growing number of highly educated experts available at reasonable costs in developing countries in the Mid East and former Soviet Union.

24 Is Cyber Terrorism a Real Threat?
International studies point out that fear of cyber terrorism may be exaggerated or misplaced for many reasons: Infrastructure is not easy to hack. Even if they enter a system, failure of such locations would not cause a widespread damage. Power outage problems with water treatment plants are not uncommon any where in the world, and never resulted in mass panic. Despite being focus of attention, the terrorist organization Al-Qaeda never used cyber attacks to gain their goals. Terrorists inflict psychological and physical damage, so they would not spend extra time for cyber attack which would not cause death and widespread destruction.


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