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T OWARDS Q UASI -R EALTIME T HEFT -E VIDENT M ECHANISM F OR P ORTABLE A RTIFACTS U SING N EAR -F IELD R FID Kirti Sunil K. Vuppala $, Puneet.

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Presentation on theme: "T OWARDS Q UASI -R EALTIME T HEFT -E VIDENT M ECHANISM F OR P ORTABLE A RTIFACTS U SING N EAR -F IELD R FID Kirti Sunil K. Vuppala $, Puneet."— Presentation transcript:

1 T OWARDS Q UASI -R EALTIME T HEFT -E VIDENT M ECHANISM F OR P ORTABLE A RTIFACTS U SING N EAR -F IELD R FID Kirti Sunil K. Vuppala $, Puneet Gupta $ UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, SET LABS, INFOSYS TECHNOLOGIES Weblink: $ Weblink:

2 2 S IGNIFICANT D EVELOPMENTS 2 Quick Biased Inference Estimated High Near Term Projected Growth Increased Portable Device Density Per Capita Increased reliance on portable devices Susceptible to misuse or theft Source: Gartner Research (http://www.gartner.com)http://www.gartner.com 10 %

3 P ROBLEM S TATEMENT 15 % 3 To mitigate/minimize/deter the effect of theft with respect to portable devices using low-cost technology. Challenges/Requirements Space Constraints Power Constraints Mobility Constraints Realtime Evidence of Theft Cost/Effort Candidates Wired Technology × Cannot be applied in general due to mobility constraints Wireless Technology Wi-Fi RFID (meets the requirements) ZigBee … Opportunity/Target Devices Portable Audio Player Portable Video Player Smartphone Personal Digital Assistant and many more …

4 Active RFID TagPassive RFID Tag RFID Reader B RIEF I NTRODUCTION T O R FID 4 Definition: RFID or Radio Frequency Identification is a technology for wireless recognition with the help of radio waves. A Tag or Transponder consists of a microchip that stores data and a coupling element, such as coiled antenna, which is used to communicate via radio frequency. 3 tag-type : Active, Passive & Hybrid A Reader or Transceiver consists of radio frequency module, a control unit and a coupling element to interrogate electronic tags via RF communication 2 operating-fields : Near-Field & Far-Field A Data Processing System takes data read by RFID reader and stores it in a database. Various operations on the data can be performed (manipulate, view etc.) Applications: Object identification & tracking etc. Suggestion: Viewers are advised to lookup terms for detailed definitions. 20 % Has a battery Long operating range No battery Short operating range Operates in Near-Field or Far-Field Uses load modulation or backscatter for communication with Tag

5 P ROPOSED S OLUTION D ESIGN : B ASICS 25 % 5 Requirements on underlying RFID carrier Operation Field: Near-Field (Frequency ≤ MHz), i.e. LF or HF Operating Distance: Up to 1 meter(s) Suggestion: Design decision intuition clears up as the presentation goes forward Signal strength vis-à-vis distance relationship Design Intuition 1: Shorter operating distance  low antenna power How can this underlying property of Near-Field RFID signal be used for solving Problem Statement ??

6 P ROPOSED S OLUTION D ESIGN : S YSTEM M ODEL 30 % 6 Artifact: Fancy name for device/object ICGTA: Increased Chance of Guessing the Thief Around Design Intuition 2: ICGTA  Shorter operating distance

7 P ROPOSED S OLUTION D ESIGN : P ACKET F ORMAT 35 % 7 Descriptions of Packet Field ACN: Artifact Class Number AN: Artifact Number ER: Error Resilience WCN: Wearable-band Class Number WN: Wearable-band Number PAWN: Portable Artifact Wearable-band Number R-PAWN: Reader-PAWN T-PAWN: Tag-PAWN Design Intuition 3: Protocol is needed between RFID reader and Tag Suggestion: PAWN is not same as pawn in CHESS game How frequently T-PAWN should be fetched from Tag given that we have power constraints ?? RFID Reader Tag T-PAWN R-PAWNT-PAWN

8 P ROPOSED S OLUTION D ESIGN : E RROR C ORRECTION M ECHANISM 40 % 8 Design Intuition 4: Resilience against intentional/un-intentional corruption required To minimize the effect of intentional/un-intentional corruption on data-in-transit. Claim RFID reader provides error correction mechanisms, like CRC Suggestion Error correction mechanism presented here, (uses Hamming Code) adds multi-bit per byte error-correction with relatively low computation cost on reader side to augment CRC

9 P ROPOSED S OLUTION D ESIGN : T HEFT -E VIDENT A LGORITHM 45 % 9 Design Intuition 5: Realtime or Quasi-Realtime evidence of theft is pertinent T-PAWN Fetch Strategy Partition time into 2 slots, viz. Sleep and Sweep Interval Reader sleeps in Sleep Interval Reader looks for Tag in Sweep Interval Sleep Interval ≥ Sweep Interval to meet power constraints Frequent Entry-Exit of Wearable-band in Reader field, to be monitored using thresholds of time instead of distance. PA: Portable Artifact with RFID Reader WB: Wearable-band with Tag ROI: Region of Interest {bounded by S’}

10 PA 1 PA 2 PA N Your Un-intelligent portable artifact P ROPOSED S OLUTION D ESIGN : O PERATIONS 50 % 10 Design Intuition 6: Class numbers facilitates grouping of artifacts, viz. WB In above example, pairs are:, …

11 P ROPOSED S OLUTION IMPLEMENTATION : ERT 55 % 11 ERT - Experimental RFID Tool: Written in C++ ~2K source lines Lightweight/WIN32 programming model Simulates Quasi-Realtime theft scenario Supports 1-on-1 operation mode Supports selective error-correction mechanism User-configurable parameters for Sleep, sweep interval and more Support for audible alerts on THEFT_CONDITION Support for custom action on THEFT_CONDITION Supports multiple error correction modes Extensible to Client/Server architecture using WINSOCK Implementation Intuition 1: Construct a tool to embody design concepts

12 P ROPOSED S OLUTION IMPLEMENTATION : TEST BED 60 % 12 Sincere Gratitude: Towards Dr. Rajat Moona, Professor, CSE, IIT Kanpur for providing STM NFC Kit ST Microelectronics CRX14 RFID ReaderST Microelectronics SR176B-A3T/PRY series RFID Tags Standard USB Cable Implementation Intuition 2: First iteration, second iteration,...

13 R ESULTS : ERROR CORRECTION 65 % 13 Multi-bit per byte error-correction to augment CRC on RFID Reader

14 R ESULTS : S NAPSHOT OF ERT 70 % 14 Initialization of ERT Quasi-Realtime Theft Evidence

15 M ERITS /D EMERITS 75 % Low cost prototype embodying design concepts 2. Experimental test-bed for problem statement 3. Version 1.0 contains significant features 4. Minimal effort portable to other platforms 5. Pragmatic solution 1. Extensive field testing required 2. Tag data is not encrypted 3. Tag-cloning possible (But cost of attack increases) Wisdom: Create, Err, Refine, Create again, …

16 I NTERESTING M ERIT 80 % 16 Daily life examples of Faraday Cages(s) Elevators Conference rooms equipped with noise-cancellation technology … Immune against operation in Faraday Cage Lack of proximity of wearable-band to portable artifact in these cages will still result in THEFT_CONDITION

17 I NTERESTING D EMERIT 85 % 17 Frequent theft alarms may be nuisance to people-at-large Quick solution: User can configure theft alarms (enable/disable) through a user-interface

18 A PPLICATIONS 90 % Portable Audio Player 2. Portable Video Player 3. Smartphone 4. Blackberry and more … 1. Documents 2. Wallet 3. Bag 4. ID-Card and more … IAM: Intelligent Artifact Model UAM: Un-intelligent Artifact Model

19 S UBSEQUENT W ORK 95 % 19 Further work includes: Enabling Sharing operation mode (Intelligent Artifact Model) Enabling Multi-tag operation mode (Un-intelligent Artifact Model) Enabling Uni-tag operation mode (Un-intelligent Artifact Model) Adding support for different types of RFID reader(s)/tag(s) Integration with a given portable artifact

20 Q UESTIONS & A NSWERS


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