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Chapter 15 Security Bernard Chen Spring 2007. Protection vs. Security Protection (Ch.14) deals with internal problem Security (Ch. 15) Deals with external.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Security Bernard Chen Spring 2007. Protection vs. Security Protection (Ch.14) deals with internal problem Security (Ch. 15) Deals with external."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Security Bernard Chen Spring 2007

2 Protection vs. Security Protection (Ch.14) deals with internal problem Security (Ch. 15) Deals with external problem

3 Security In many applications, ensuring the security of the computer system is worth considerable effort Large commercial systems containing payroll or other financial data are inviting targets to thieves Security must consider external environment of the system, and protect the system resources

4 The Security Problem Intruders (crackers) attempt to breach security Threat is potential security violation Attack is attempt to breach security Attack can be accidental or malicious Easier to protect against accidental than malicious misuse

5 Security Violations Categories Breach of confidentiality Breach of integrity Breach of availability Theft of service Denial of service

6 Security Violations Breach of confidentiality This type of violation involves unauthorized reading of data (or theft of information). Capturing secret data from a system, such as credit-card information, identity theft. Breach of integrity This violation involves unauthorized modification of data. Such as modification of the source code of an important commercial application

7 Security Violations Breach of availability This violation involved unauthorized destruction of data. Website defacement is a common example of this type Theft of service This violation involves unauthorized use of resource Denial of service (DOS) This violation involves preventing legitimate use of the system.

8 Security Violation Methods Methods Masquerading (breach authentication) Replay attack Message modification Man-in-the-middle attack Session hijacking

9 Security Violation Methods Masquerading: one participant in a communication pretends to be someone else. By masquerading, attackers breach authentication, the correctness of identification Replay Attack: consist of the malicious or fraudulent repeat of a valid data transmission.

10 Security Violation Methods Message modification Man-in-the-middle attack Session hijacking

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12 Security Measure Levels Security must occur at four levels to be effective: Physical Human (Avoid phishing: a legitimate-looking or a web page misleads a user into entering confidential information dumpster diving: attempting to gather information in order to gain unauthorized access to the computer) Operating System Network

13 Program Threats

14 C Program with Buffer C Program with Buffer-overflow Condition

15 In stead of using “strcpy(buffer, argv[1]);” Use “strncpy(buffer,argv[1],sizeof(buffer)-1)”

16 Hypothetical Stack Frame

17 Viruses Code fragment embedded in legitimate program Very specific to CPU architecture, operating system, applications Usually borne via or as a macro

18 Types of Viruses Many categories of viruses, literally many thousands of viruses File Boot Macro Source code Polymorphic Encrypted Stealth Tunneling Multipartite Armored

19 A Boot-sector Computer Virus

20 Worms A worm is a process that uses the SPAWN mechanism to ravage system performance The worm spawns copies of itself, using up system resources and perhaps locking out all other processes The worm was made up of two programs, a grappling hook program and the main program

21 Worm

22 Cryptography as a Security Tool It is the broadest security tool available Source and destination of messages cannot be trusted without cryptography The method is based on secrets (keys)

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24 Encryption

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26 Symmetric Encryption Same key used to encrypt and decrypt E(k) can be derived from D(k), and vice versa

27 Symmetric Encryption DES is most commonly used symmetric block- encryption algorithm (created by US Govt) Encrypts a block of data at a time Triple-DES considered more secure Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), twofish up and coming RC4 is most common symmetric stream cipher, but known to have vulnerabilities

28 Asymmetric Encryption Public-key encryption based on each user having two keys: public key – published key used to encrypt data private key – key known only to individual user used to decrypt data

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