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Today and Tomorrow 12 th Edition Understanding Computers Chapter 9 Network and Internet Security.

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Presentation on theme: "Today and Tomorrow 12 th Edition Understanding Computers Chapter 9 Network and Internet Security."— Presentation transcript:

1 Today and Tomorrow 12 th Edition Understanding Computers Chapter 9 Network and Internet Security

2 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 2 Learning Objectives Explain why computer users should be concerned about network and Internet security. List several examples of unauthorized access, unauthorized use, and computer sabotage. Explain how access control systems, firewalls, antivirus software, and encryption protect against unauthorized access, unauthorized use, and computer sabotage. Discuss online theft, identity theft, Internet scams, spoofing, phishing, and other types of dot cons.

3 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 3 Learning Objectives Detail steps an individual can take to protect against online theft, identity theft, Internet scams, spoofing, phishing, and other types of dot cons. Identify personal safety risks associated with Internet use. List steps individuals can take to safeguard their personal safety when using the Internet. Name several laws related to network and Internet security.

4 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 4 Overview This chapter covers: –Security concerns stemming from the use of computer networks –Safeguards and precautions that can be taken to reduce the risk of problems related to these security concerns –Personal safety issues related to the Internet –Safeguards and precautions that can be taken to reduce the risk of problems related to these personal safety issues –Legislation related to network and Internet security

5 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 5 Why Be Concerned about Network and Internet Security ? Security concerns related to computer networks and the Internet abound Computer crime (cybercrime): Any illegal act involving a computer, including: –Breaking through the security of a network –Theft of financial assets –Manipulating data for personal advantage –Act of sabotage (releasing a computer virus, shutting down a Web server) All computer users should be aware of security issues and the precautions that can be taken

6 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 6 Unauthorized Access and Unauthorized Use Unauthorized access: Gaining access to a computer, network, file, or other resource without permission Unauthorized use: Using a computer resource for unapproved activities Both can be committed by insiders and outsiders Codes of conduct: Used to specify rules for behavior, typically by a business or school

7 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 7 Unauthorized Access and Unauthorized Use Hacking: The act of breaking into another computer system –A serious threat for individuals, business, and the country (national security) Wi-Fi hacking: Common for hackers to gain entrance via Wi-Fi War driving or Wi-Fi piggybacking: Using someone else’s Wi-Fi network to gain free access to the Internet –Illegal in some areas –Can lead to criminal behavior –Ethical issues

8 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 8 Unauthorized Access and Unauthorized Use Interception of communications: Gaining unauthorized access to data as it is being sent over the Internet or another network –The increased use of wireless networks has opened up new opportunities for data interception Business and personal wireless networks Use of public hotspots Wireless connections with mobile phones and mobile devices –Once intercepted, the content can be read, altered, or otherwise used for unintended purposes

9 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 9 Computer Sabotage Computer sabotage: Acts of malicious destruction to a computer or computer resource Bot: A PC that is controlled by a computer criminal Botnet: A group of bots that can work together in a controlled fashion –Used by botherders to send spam, launch Internet attacks and malware, etc. Malware: Any type of malicious software –Includes viruses, worms, Trojan horses, etc. –Increasingly used for computer crimes and to take control of individuals’ PCs for botnet activities –Can infect mobile phones and mobile devices (some preinstalled on mobile devices)

10 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 10 Computer Sabotage Computer virus: Malicious program embedded in a file that is designed to cause harm to the computer system –Often embedded in downloaded programs and e- mail messages Computer worm: Malicious program designed to spread rapidly by sending copies of itself to other computers –Typically sent via Trojan horse: Malicious program that masquerades as something else –Usually appear to be a game or other program –Cannot replicate themselves; must be downloaded and installed

11 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 11 Computer Sabotage

12 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 12 Computer Sabotage Denial of service (DoS) attack: Act of sabotage that floods a Web server with so much activity that it is unable to function –Distributed DoS attack: Uses multiple computers

13 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 13 Computer Sabotage Data or program alteration: When a hacker breaches a computer system in order to delete or change data –Students changing grades –Employees performing vengeful acts, such as deleting or changing corporate data –Web site defacement (cybervandalism): Changing content of a Web site Often used to make political statements

14 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 14 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage Access control systems: Used to control access to: –Facilities –Computer networks –Databases –Web site accounts Can be individual or part of a complete network access control (NAC) system Can be: –Identification systems: Verify that the person trying to access the facility or system is an authorized user –Authentication systems: Determine if the person is who he or she claims to be Can use more than one type (two-factor systems)

15 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 15 Access Control Systems Possessed knowledge access systems: Use information that only an individual should know –Usernames –PINs –Passwords Should be strong passwords and changed frequently Tokens can generate passwords –Cognitive authentification systems: Use information the individual knows (past teachers, birthplace, first home, etc.) Disadvantage: Can be used by an unauthorized individual with the proper knowledge

16 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 16 Passwords

17 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 17 Possessed Knowledge Systems

18 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 18 Access Control Systems Possessed object access systems: Use physical objects that an individual has in his or her possession –Smart cards –RFID-encoded badges –Magnetic cards –Encoded badges –USB security keys or e-tokens Disadvantage: can be lost or used by an unauthorized individual –When used with passwords or biometrics = two-factor authentication

19 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 19 Access Control Systems Biometric access systems: Use a unique physical characteristic of an individual in order to grant access –Fingerprint –Hand geometry –Face –Iris –Can also use personal traits, such as voice or signature –Increasingly being built into hardware Advantage: Can only be used by the authorized individual and cannot be lost or forgotten Disadvantage: Cannot be reset ; expensive

20 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 20 Biometric Systems

21 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 21 Access Control Systems Controlling access to wireless networks –In general, Wi-Fi is less secure than wired networks –Security is usually off by default; wireless networks should be secured –Wireless network owners should: Enable Wi-Fi encryption (WPA is more secure than WEP) Not broadcast the network name Change the default network administrator password Can use Media Access Control (MAC) address filtering

22 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 22 Controlling Access to Wireless Networks

23 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 23 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage Firewall: Security system that provides a protective boundary between a computer or network and the outside world –Works by closing down all external communications port addresses –Blocks access to the PC from outside hackers –Blocks access to the Internet from programs on the user’s PC unless authorized by the user –Important for home PCs that have a direct Internet connection as well as for businesses –Intrusion protection system (IPS) software is related Monitors and analyzes traffic allowed by the firewall to try and detect possible attacks

24 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 24 Firewalls

25 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 25 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage Encryption: Method of scrambling or files to make them unreadable –Private key encryption: Uses a single key Most often used to encrypt files on a PC If used to send files to others, the recipient needs to be told the key –Public key encryption: Uses two keys Public key: Can be given to anyone; used to encrypt messages to be sent to that person Private key: Only known by the individual; used to decrypt messages that are encrypted with the individual’s public key Key pairs can be obtained through a Certificate Authority

26 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 26 Encryption

27 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 27 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage –Secure Web pages: Use encryption (SSL, EV SSL, etc.) to protect information transmitted via their Web pages Look for a locked padlock on the status bar and https:// in the URL Only transmit credit card numbers and other sensitive data via a secure Web server –Web-based encrypted (HushMail) is available –Various strengths of encryption available Stronger is more difficult to crack Strong = 128-bit (16-character keys) Military = 2,048-bit (256-character keys)

28 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 28 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage Virtual private networks (VPNs): Secure path over the Internet –Allows authorized users to securely access a private network via the Internet –Much less expensive than a private secure network since uses the Internet –Can provide a secure environment over a large geographical area –Typically used by businesspeople to remotely access corporate networks via the Internet –Personal VPNs can be used by individuals to surf safely at a wireless hotspot

29 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 29 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage Antivirus software: Used to detect and eliminate computer viruses and other types of malware –Should be set up to run continuously to check incoming messages, instant messages, and downloaded files –Should be set up to scan the entire PC regularly –Needs to be updated regularly since new malware is introduced at all times –Best to have the program automatically download new virus definitions on a regular basis –Some programs also scan for other threats, such as spyware, bots, possible phishing schemes, etc.

30 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 30 Antivirus Software

31 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 31 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage –Some ISPs filter include virus checking – authentication systems can protect against viruses sent via –Common sense precautions can help prevent a virus infection

32 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 32 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage Individuals should take additional precautions when using public hotspots in addition to using security software, secure Web pages, VPNs, and file encryption –Turn off file sharing –Disable Wi-Fi and Bluetooth if not needed –Use firewall to block incoming connections –Turn off automatic and ad hoc connections

33 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 33 Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Use, and Computer Sabotage A significant number of security breaches (over 60%) are committed by insiders Taking caution with employees can help avoid security problems –Screen potential new hires carefully –Watch for disgruntled employees and ex- employees –Develop policies and controls –Use data-leakage prevention and enterprise rights- management software –Ask business partners to review their security to avoid attacks coming from someone located at that organization

34 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 34 Data-Leakage Prevention Software

35 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 35 Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Dot con: A fraud or scam carried out through the Internet Data theft or information theft can be committed by: –Stealing an actual PC –A hacker gaining unauthorized access –Includes personal data, proprietary corporate information, and money Identity theft –Using someone else’s identity to purchase goods or services, obtain new credit cards or bank loans, or illegally masquerade as that individual –Information obtained via documents, phishing schemes, stolen information, etc. –Expensive and time consuming to recover from

36 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 36 Identity Theft

37 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 37 Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Online auction fraud: When an item purchased through an online auction is never delivered, or the item is not as specified by the seller Internet offer scams: A wide range of scams offered through Web sites or unsolicited s –Loan and pyramid scams –Work-at-home cons and bogus prize offers –Nigerian letter fraud scheme Spoofing: Making it appear that an or a Web site originates from somewhere other than where it really does –Web site spoofing – spoofing

38 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 38 Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Phishing: Use of spoofed messages to gain credit card numbers and other personal data –After victim clicks a link in the message and supplies sensitive data, they transmit that data to the thief – s and Web sites often look legitimate

39 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 39 Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Spear phishing: Targeted to specific individuals –Often include personalized information to seem more legitimate –May impersonate someone in your organization, such as from human resources or the IT dept. Pharming: The use of spoofed domain names to obtain personal information –DNS servers are hacked to route requests for legitimate Web pages to spoofed Web pages (DNS poisoning) –Often take place via company DNS servers Drive-by pharming: Hacker changes the DNS server used by a victim’s router or access point to use a DNS server set up by the pharmer

40 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 40 Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Spyware: Program installed without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information and sends it to an outside party via the Internet –Can be installed: With another program (particular freeware programs) By clicking a link in a phishing message By visiting a Web site –Security risk if it transmits personal data that can be used in identity theft or other illegal activities –Can also slow down a PC or make it malfunction –Stealthware: Aggressive spyware programs Often continually deliver ads, change browser settings, etc.

41 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 41 Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Protecting against identity theft –Do not give out personal information (Social Security number, mother’s maiden name, etc.) unless absolutely necessary –Never give out sensitive information over the phone or by –Shred documents containing sensitive data, credit card offers, etc. –Don’t place sensitive outgoing mail in your mailbox –Watch your bills and credit report to detect identity theft early –Can get a free credit report from 3 major consumer credit bureaus each year

42 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 42 Protecting Against Identity Theft

43 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 43 Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Protecting against other dot cons: –Use common sense –Check online auction seller’s feedback before bidding –Pay for online purchases via a credit card so transactions can be disputed if needed –Never respond to request for updated credit card information –Never click a link in an unsolicited –Keep your browser and operating system up to date

44 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 44 Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons

45 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 45 Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons

46 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 46 Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Protecting against spyware: –Check Web sites that list known spyware programs before downloading a program –Run antispyware programs regularly –Be cautious about downloads –Keep operating system and browser up to date

47 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 47 Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Digital signature: Unique digital code that can be attached to an message or document –Can be used to verify the identity of the sender –Can be used to guarantee the message or file has not been changed –Uses public key encryption Document is signed with the sender’s private key The key and the document create a unique digital signature Signature is verified using the sender’s public key

48 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 48 Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Digital certificate: Group of electronic data that can be used to verify the identity of a person or organization –Obtained from a Certificate Authority –Typically contains identity information about the person or organization, an expiration date, and a pair of keys to be used with encryption and digital signatures –Are also used with secure Web sites to guarantee that the site is secure and actually belongs to the stated individual or organization Can be SSL or EV SSL –Banks and other financial institutions may soon issue digital certificates to customers to protect against dot cons

49 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 49 Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons

50 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 50 Personal Safety Issues Cyberbullying: Bullying someone via the Internet or e- mail –Increasingly happening to children and teenagers Cyberstalking: Repeated threats or harassing behavior via or another Internet communication method including: –Sending harassing messages to the victim –Sending unwanted files to the victim –Posting inappropriate messages about the victim –Signing the victim up for offensive material –Publicizing the victim’s contact information Sometimes escalates to personal violence

51 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 51 Personal Safety Issues Online pornography –Concern for parents and schools –Difficult to stop due to constitutional rights –Online pornography involving minors is illegal –Link between online pornography and child molestation –Internet can make it easier to arrange dangerous meetings between predators and children

52 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 52 Protecting Against Cyberstalking and Other Personal Safety Concerns Safety tips for adults –Be cautious in chat rooms, discussion groups –Use gender-neutral, nonprovocative names –Do not reveal personal information –Do not respond to insults or harassing comments –Request to have personal information removed from online directories Safety tips for children –Parents should monitor Internet activities –Have children use a PC in a family room –They should be told which activities are allowed –Instruct them to tell a parent of a request for personal information or a personal meeting

53 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 53 Network and Internet Security Legislation It is difficult for the legal system to keep pace with the rate at which technology changes There are domestic and international jurisdictional issues Computer crime legislation continues to be proposed and computer crimes are being prosecuted

54 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 54 Network and Internet Security Legislation

55 Chapter 9 Understanding Computers, 12th Edition 55 Summary Why Be Concerned about Network and Internet Security? Unauthorized Access, Unauthorized Use, and Computer Sabotage Protecting Against Unauthorized Access, Unauthorized Use, and Computer Sabotage Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Protecting Against Online Theft, Fraud, and Other Dot Cons Personal Safety Issues Protecting Against Cyberstalking and Other Personal Safety Concerns Network and Internet Security Legislation


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