The process (in a nutshell) 1.Draft search terms 2.Draft sift criteria 3.Sift received abstracts 4.Request full papers 5.Read and ‘grade’ papers 6.Write it up (‘synthesis’)
TermsResults Anywhere in the article “Domestic violence”597,000 “Domestic abuse”32,500 Title only “Domestic violence"23,700 “Domestic abuse”1,220 Published since 2000 (title only) “Domestic violence"13,200 “Domestic abuse”822 Adding ‘randomised controlled trial’ “Domestic violence"0 0 Adding ‘experiment’ “Domestic violence"32 “Domestic abuse”0 Adding ‘systematic review’ “Domestic violence"7 “Domestic abuse”0 Search terms are hugely important Today’s session will really focus on our search terms and their impacts. Librarians and Researchers to help run live pilot searches Group work to build our search terms
Practical example of searching What works in preventing residential burglary?
Boolean is a powerful tool and can be used to create quite complex searches. The standard Boolean operators are: AND OR NOT (or AND NOT) Boolean is most effective when used in combination with: PARENTHESES(round brackets) TRUNCATION e.g. politic* WILDCARDS e.g. randomi?e DOUBLE QUOTESfor specific phrases The Basics Boolean operators
What works in preventing residential burglary? Run through each of the basic functions Combine tiers together to show impact of tiers in reducing number of papers
Creating a search string example of domestic violence
String should be based around the research question: What works in the policing of public order? How can we reduce recidivism amongst sexual offenders? Each key aspect identified will then make up one Tier of the search. The tiers will then be combined to create the complete search string. Creating a Search String
There are usually three tiers, but there can be as many or as few as the search requires. The standard way to create tiers is create lists of synonyms within a table, eg. Tiers Tier 1 Frozen Dessert Tier 2 Wafer Tier 3 Syrup Ice cream Froyo Sorbet Grannita Wafer Waffle Golden syrup Maple syrup Chocolate sauce Strawberry sauce
Domestic violence example Tier 1. Domestic violence / Domestic abuse This is the main area of the search. Q: What are the risks/ predictive factors associated with domestic violence/ abuse? Tier 2. Risk factors/ predictive factors These terms interact with the main subject of the search. Tier 3. Effectiveness / What works We want to capture evidence that is evaluative, rather than commentary. Tier 4. Policing (?) We may want to limit our search to factors for the police and policing, or we might decide we are interested in factors identified from healthcare or other potential partners.
Building our search string using synonyms Tier 1: Domestic violence/ abuse Tier 2: Risk/ predictive factors Tier 3: Effectiveness Tier 4: Policing Domestic violence Domestic abuse Intimate partner violence Intimate-partner violence (hyphenated) Intimate partner femicide Spousal assault Partner violence Battered women Wife assault Repeated violence Couple violence Domestic murder Risk assessment Risk management Risk appraisal Risk of homicide Prediction of homicide Nursing assessment Lethality risk assessment Predicting/ predictive Dangerousness assessment Evaluation Assessment “What works” Impact Randomised controlled trial Trial Experiment Systematic review Police Policing Law Enforcement Q: What are the risks/ predictive factors associated with domestic violence/ abuse?
Turning synonyms into search terms ((Domestic OR Physical OR Emotional OR Familial OR Marital OR Spousal) AND (Abus* OR violen* OR control* OR behav*)) OR Coerc* OR “domestic homicide” OR “marital rape” OR “intimate partner violence” OR “repeat victim*” OR “women’s refuge” C. 197,000 results
Research question What interventions have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing theft from the person
Factors in our question Tier 1. Theft from the person Tier 2. Prevention or Reduction Tier 3. Intervention Tier 4. What Works Tier 5. Policing
Tier 1 Synonyms – Robbery (attempt*) Mugging Dipping Pickpocketing Assault with intent to rob Snatching Theft from person Theft from individual Conspiracy to rob Stealing from person Distraction thefts street crime Bag theft Bag snatch Personal theft Mobile phone theft
Tier 1 - Version 1 - ProQuest ab(robb* OR mugg* OR dipp* OR ("pick pocket*" OR pickpocket* OR pick?pocket) OR "assault with intent to rob" OR snatch* OR "theft from person" OR "theft from individual" OR "personal theft" or "conspiracy to rob" OR "stealing from person" OR "distraction theft*" OR "street crime*" OR "bag theft" OR "bag snatch" OR "personal theft" OR "mobile phone theft") OR ti(robb* OR mugg* OR dipp* OR ("pick pocket*" OR pickpocket* OR pick?pocket) OR "assault with intent to rob" OR snatch* OR "theft from person" OR "theft from individual" OR "personal theft" or "conspiracy to rob" OR "stealing from person" OR "distraction theft*" OR "street crime*" OR "bag theft" OR "bag snatch" OR "personal theft" OR "mobile phone theft") C. 220k
Tier 2 - Version 1 - ProQuest Prevent* OR Reduc* OR Decreas* OR Fall OR Falling OR Cease OR Stop* OR Deter* OR Divert* OR Declin* OR Eradicat* OR solve* OR Minimi?* OR Halt OR Tackl* OR Resolv* OR Lessen* OR Curtail* OR Remov* OR Thwart* OR Inhibit* OR Avert* OR Diminish* OR Lower* Approximate number of hits: 1,900,000
Tier 2 - Version 2 - ProQuest Search terms Approximate number of hits
Tier 2 - Version 3 - ProQuest Search terms Approximate number of hits
Tier 3 - Version 1 - ProQuest Interven* OR Publicity OR “Multi?agenc*” OR Enforc* OR “Problem?solving” OR “problem?oriented” OR Strateg* OR Tactic* OR “Positive action*” OR Partnership* OR Activit* OR Initiative* OR Operation* OR Option* OR Solution* OR Approach* OR Procedur* OR Pilot* OR Action* OR Target* OR “Hot?spot policing” OR trial* Approximate number of hits 3,100,000
Tier 3 - Version 2 - ProQuest Search terms Approximate number of hits
Tier 3 - Version 3 - ProQuest Search terms Approximate number of hits
Tier 4 Synonyms - ProQuest Tier 4 – WHAT WORKS “systematic review*” OR “Rapid evidence assessment” OR “literature review*” OR trial OR RCT OR experiment OR evaluat* OR “best practice*” OR “Good practice*” OR effective* OR Assess* OR “What works” or impact OR success* Tier 4 = 2,447,135 records
Tier 5 Synonyms -ProQuest Tier 5 – POLICING Police OR policing OR “law enforcement” Tier 5 = 216,888 records
Initial merging of terms Version X of Tier 1 + Version X of Tier 2 = c XXXX records + Tier 3 = c. XXXX records + Tier 4 = c. XXXX records + Tier 5 = c. XXXX records Issues/ questions/ queries What surprised you, etc
This exercise 1.Shows the value of systematically searching 2.Shows the impact of having multiple tiers in our searches 3.Gives us an idea of the number of articles that might be relevant to our research question… At the next evidence base camp we will sift through the abstracts based on inclusion/ exclusion criteria to identify the full papers to request for the review. Email: Library@college.pnn.police.uk Web: www.college.police.uk
Theft Pickpocket* “Pick Pocket*” Mugg* “Street Robber*” “Theft from the person” “Mobile phone*” OR “Cell Phone*” Wallet* OR purse* or (Bag OR Bags)
Theft Search String Pickpocket* OR “pick pocket*” OR mugg* OR “street robber*” OR “theft from the person” OR ((theft OR snatch OR robber* OR dip*) AND (person OR persons OR “mobile phone*” OR “cell phone*” OR wallet* OR purse* or bag*))
Prevention or Reduction Prevent* Reduc* Stop* Decreas* Tackl* Prevent* OR reduc* OR stop* OR decrease* or tackl*
Intervention Tactic* Intervention* Strateg* Initiative* Procedure* Approach* Tactic* OR intervention* OR strateg* OR initiative* OR procedure* OR approach*
What Works (1) “Systematic Review*” “Rapid evidence assessment*” “Literature Review*” Trial RCT OR “Randomised Control Trial” Experiment* Evaluat*
What Works (2) “Best Practice” “Good Practice” Effective* Assess* “What Works” Impact Success*
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