Presentation on theme: "Ch. 10 Nucleic Acids & Protein SynthesisWhat controls the production of proteins in cells? DNA DNA Every time new cells develop by mitosis, DNA is passed."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 10 Nucleic Acids & Protein SynthesisWhat controls the production of proteins in cells? DNA DNA Every time new cells develop by mitosis, DNA is passed onto that new cell by the parent cell. DNA has 2 main functions 1. 1. Store and use information to direct cell activities. 2. 2. Copy itself for new cells that are created.
DNA makes this? Proteins, Proteins, which are made of amino acids. How many amino acids are known? 20 20 Where is DNA found in your cell? Nucleus Nucleus – inside chromosomes Chromosomes DNA Genes Traits *Most traits are effected by many genes and most genes are involved in the development of several traits.
DNAWho were the 1 st 1 st people to propose a model of DNA? They won a noble prize. Watson, Watson, Crick, Wilkins, & Franklin This is the term for describing a DNA molecule. Double Double helix (spiral stair-case) DNA has two long strands; each strand is constructed of a series of nucleotides. DNA - Video
DNA Model DNA Nucleotide (3 parts to a nucleotide) 1. Deoxyribose sugar 1. Deoxyribose sugar 2. Phosphate 2. Phosphate 3. Nitrogen base (4 different types 3. Nitrogen base (4 different types Types of nitrogen bases 1. Adenine 2. Guanine 3. Thymine 4. Cytosine
Nitrogen BasesAdenine always pairs with Thymine Equal Equal amounts (2 Hydrogen Bond) Guanine always pairs with Cytosine amounts (3 Hydrogen Bond) ( Pg. ( Pg. 311) Draw a DNA Molecule Pg. Pg. 186 A DNA molecule looks like a twisted ladder. Purines Adenine & Guanine Purines Purines are a 2 ring 3 carbon chain. Prymidines Cytosine & Thymine Prymidines Prymidines are a 1 ring 5 carbon chain.
When a DNA molecule makes an exact copy of itself this is called replication. This This occurs when mitosis takes place. During replication the DNA molecule splits in half where the nitrogen bases are attached by a hydrogen bond. It It is split with help of enzymes – Helicases. Now there are 2 unattached strains of DNA. These strands will pair up with a “new” strand that matches the “original” strand. These These strands reattach with the help of an enzyme called DNA polymerase.
The original DNA gets the new strand from RNA. RNA is like DNA, except it has 1 strand of nucleotides; DNA has 2 strands of nucleotides. RNA has ribose as its sugar. RNA also has uracil instead of thymine as its base. Uracil pairs up with adenine.
Organism differ from each other by the pattern of the base sequence in their DNA. Mitosis is responsible for the formation of genetically identical cells. Genetic material in organisms include DNA, RNA, & proteins. The m-RNA (messenger RNA) carries a copy of DNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm of the cell. This is called transcription. DNA into m-RNA The m-RNA carries the information for making a protein chain to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized.
The m-RNA is synthesized in the ribosomes to make a complementary copy of the DNA code for a protein chain. The process of making a matching sequence of bases for the m-RNA is called translation. Pg. 195. t-RNA (transfer RNA) brings amino acids to the ribosomes so the proteins can be made for the matching sequence involved in translation. The r-RNA (ribosomal RNA) helps to produce enzymes needed to bond amino acids together during protein synthesis. Messenger RNA - Video
RNA RNA is produced from DNA. 3 types of RNA 1. Messenger RNA (m-RNA) An uncoiled strand. 2. Transfer RNA (t-RNA) A folded strand (like a hairpin) 3. Ribosomal RNA (r-RNA) A globular form of RNA
Difference of RNA & DNA 1. Ribose as sugar. DNA has deoxyribose. 2. Uracil pairs with adenine. DNA has thymine pairing with adenine. 3. RNA is a single strand of nucleotides. DNA is a double strand of nucleotides. RNA Genetic Code - Video
CodonA codon is a sequence of three nitrogen bases in the m-RNA molecule. This This is produced during transcription. Each specific codon codes for a specific amino acid from the anticodon. 3 bases are used in the codon sequence. AUG is always the “initiator” codon. UAA or UAG are always the “terminator” codon.
AnticodonAn anticodon is a three base sequence that pairs with the codon sequence. Anticodons are produced by t-RNA This is produced during translation. AUG CUU ACG CAU GUA UAU = Codon (transcription) UAC GAA UGC GUA CAU AUA= Anticodon (translation) AUG UCA CUA GCU UCG UAG = Codon (transcription) UAC AGU GAU CGA AGC AUC =Anticodon (translation) Human Genome – V V V V V iiii dddd eeee oooo
The molecular structure of DNA is a universal code that is represented in all organisms. All organisms use A,T,G,C for their DNA. This is evidence that all organisms alive today share a common ancestor billions of years ago.