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National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team Made by Alexandra Birladeanu and Gina Ioana Ursu.

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Presentation on theme: "National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team Made by Alexandra Birladeanu and Gina Ioana Ursu."— Presentation transcript:

1 National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team Made by Alexandra Birladeanu and Gina Ioana Ursu.

2 H ubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. Its position outside the Earth's atmosphere, giving it a significant advantage over telescopes on Earth. Since its launch in 1990 became one of the most important instruments in the history of astronomy. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

3 Launch dateApril 24, 1990 Mission length20 years elapsed Deorbiteddue 2013-2021 Mass11,110 kg Orbit height559 km Orbit velocity7,500 m/s WavelenghtOptical, ultraviolet, near- infrared Diameter2.4 m Collecting area4.5 m 2 National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

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5 The atmosphere is the biggest problem that space telescopes have faced since the very earliest days of their invention. Shifting air pockets in Earth's atmosphere distort the view of telescopes on the ground. This "atmospheric distortion" is the reason that the stars seem to twinkle when you look up at the sky. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

6 National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team The atmosphere also partially blocks or absorbs certain wavelengths of radiation, like ultraviolet, gamma- and X- rays, before they can reach Earth. Scientists can best examine an object like a star by studying it in all the types of wavelengths.

7 Fortunately, scientists and engineers had a solution. A series of small mirrors could be used to intercept the light reflecting off the mirror, correct for the flaw, and bounce the light to the telescope's science instruments. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

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9 Every 97 minutes, Hubble completes a spin around Earth, moving at the speed of about five miles per second (8 km per second). As it travels, Hubble's mirror captures light and directs it into its several science instruments. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

10 Hubble is a type of telescope known as a Cassegrain reflector. Light hits the telescope's main mirror, or primary mirror. It bounces off the primary mirror and encounters a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror focuses the light through a hole in the center of the primary mirror that leads to the telescope's science instruments. Once the mirror captures the light, Hubble's science instruments work together or individually to provide the observation. Each instrument is designed to examine the universe in a different way. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

11 National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team The Hubble Space Telescope's six science instruments — its cameras, spectrographs, and fine guidance sensors — work either together or individually to bring us stunning images from the farthest reaches of space. Each instrument was designed to observe the universe in a unique way.

12 National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team Starburst: A brilliant burst of star formation is revealed in this image combining observations from NASA's Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes. The collision of two spiral galaxies has triggered this luminous starburst, the brightest ever seen away from the centers, or nuclei, of merging galaxies.

13 Astronomers have devised a new method for measuring perhaps the greatest puzzle of our universe -- dark energy. This mysterious force, discovered in 1998, is pushing our universe apart at ever-increasing speeds. Scientists aren't clear about what dark energy is, but they do know that it makes up a large chunk of our universe -- about 72 percent. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

14 Wide Field Camera 3 is expected to become Hubble's new main instrument. It is 35 times better than the infrared camera in the ACS, and 15-20 times better than the NICMOS. It has higher resolution and a larger field of view than the instrument it replaced, Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. WFC3 has two "channels" which detects and processes different wavelengths. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team The ultraviolet-visible channel The near-infrared channel Used to study nearby galaxies Used to study the light from distant galaxies

15 National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph doesn't produce the kind of images people associate with Hubble. Spectrographs are instruments that break light into colors and measure the intensity of each color, revealing information about the object emitting the light. The information they produce is typically plotted, creating zigzagging lines that scientists examine for clues about an object's temperature, density, velocity and more.

16 The Near Infrared Camera and Multi- Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) can see objects in deepest space — objects whose light takes billions of years to reach us here on Earth. As a camera for recording visible light must be dark inside to avoid exposure to unwanted light, a camera for recording infrared light must be cold inside to avoid exposure to unwanted light in the form of heat.This is why the sensitive infrared detectors in NICMOS must operate at very cold temperatures —77 degrees Kelvin. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

17 National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team Far away galaxy The egg nebula

18 The unique WFPC2 design resulted in the stair-step appearance of many of its images. The "heart'' of WFPC2 consisted of four cameras: one high- resolution"planetary" camera and three "wide-field" cameras. Although the planetary camera could see only a small region of the sky, it packed a punch — compacting the same number of pixels into a smaller area resulted in finer-detailed images. National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team

19 National College RomaniaCassiopeiae Team The Large Magellanic Cloud The eagle nebula

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