3Section 1.11) Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes.
4Section 1.11) Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes.2) There are six main branches of study in chemistry
5a. Organic Chemistry is the study of most carbon-containing compounds
6a. Organic Chemistry is the study of most carbon-containing compounds b. Inorganic Chemistry is the study of all substances not classified as organic.
7a. Organic Chemistry is the study of most carbon-containing compounds b. Inorganic Chemistry is the study of all substances not classified as organic.c. Physical Chemistry is the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
8a. Organic Chemistry is the study of most carbon-containing compounds b. Inorganic Chemistry is the study of all substances not classified as organic.c. Physical Chemistry is the study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energyd. Analytical Chemistry is the identification of the components and composition of materials
9e. Biochemistry is the study of substances and processes occurring in living things
10e. Biochemistry is the study of substances and processes occurring in living things f. Theoretical Chemistry is the use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds
12Uniform Not Uniform Section 1.2 Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. If the matter has a uniform composition, then it is called a substance, or pure substance.UniformNot Uniform
13Section 1.2Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. If the matter has a uniform composition, then it is called a substance, or pure substance. This includes all elements, like iron, carbon, and oxygen, and compounds of the elements, like salt, water, and acetic acid.
14Explain why salt and water are both substances, but seawater (salty water) is not.
15Matter is identified by its properties; shape, size, color, mass, etc Matter is identified by its properties; shape, size, color, mass, etc. There are two classifications of properties - physical and chemical.
16Physical properties can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition (the chemicals that make it up). For example, if you rip a piece of paper, you’ve changed the size, but it’s still paper. There are two classifications of physical properties - extensive and intensive.
17Extensive physical properties depend on how much of the sample you have, like mass and volume.
18Extensive physical properties depend on how much of the sample you have, like mass and volume. Intensive physical properties do not depend on how much of the sample you have, they will still be the same. For example, the density of a piece of copper is 8.92 g/cm3 whether you have a little piece or if you have a truckload.
19Chemical properties describe the sample’s ability to combine with or change into other substances. If iron (an element - a substance) combines with oxygen (an element - a substance) it will form iron oxide (a compound - a substance), which we usually call rust.
21Try to classify each of the following properties as a physical or chemical property. If it is a physical property, also state if it is extensive or intensive.SizeDensityColorFlammableCorrosivePhase of Matter
22There are five phases of matter (also called states of matter There are five phases of matter (also called states of matter.) Each phase has specific physical properties associated with it. Solid, liquids, and gases are by far the most common on earth, but plasmas (extremely high electrical energy - like lightening bolts) are the most common in the universe as all stars are made up of plasma. The fifth phase does not occur naturally anywhere in the universe and is still undergoing laboratory research.
23Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. The atoms in a solid are usually packed very close together and are often locked into a geometric shape (crystal). The atoms can only vibrate a little.
24Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they still have a definite volume. The atoms in a liquid are still close together, but are free to slide around each other - making them a fluid (able to flow).
25Gases do not have a definite shape or a definite volume Gases do not have a definite shape or a definite volume. The atoms spread apart as much as possible and move very fast.
26Plasmas are similar to gases, only instead of being made of atoms it is made up of electrons.
294) Just as there are two types of properties, there are two types of changes matter can undergo - physical and chemical.
30Physical changes alter a substance without changing its composition Physical changes alter a substance without changing its composition. Common physical changes involve change in shape and size - in other words, changes to a physical property.
31Phase changes are ALWAYS physical changes Phase changes are ALWAYS physical changes. The composition of the substance does not change, just how close the atoms are to each other and how much they can move. This includes melting, freezing, evaporation, vaporizing (boiling), and condensing.
32Chemical changes alter the composition of a substance Chemical changes alter the composition of a substance. Thus chemical changes always alter physical properties.
33Chemical changes alter the composition of a substance Chemical changes alter the composition of a substance. Thus chemical changes always alter physical properties.Evidences of chemical changes include changes in color, texture, odor, the appearance or disappearance of a solid, and possibly a change in magnetic ability.
34Note: it can be very tricky to tell physical and chemical changes apart just by the appearance. For instance, if you paint a piece of paper orange, it is a physical change, but if iron turns to orange rust, it is a chemical change.
35You cannot even think that physical changes can be easily reversed and chemical changes cannot, for it would be hard to “unpaint” the orange paper, but the orange rust can be turned back into iron by rubbing it with aluminum foil.
36With each change, you must ask yourself if you’ve changed the chemical composition of the original substance or not. If you did, then it is a chemical change. If you did not, then it is a physical change.
385) No matter which change occurs, at all times the Law of Conservation of Matter must be applied. If you rip a piece of paper into 4 parts, the mass of all 4 parts must equal the mass of the original piece of paper. Also, the mass of all substances before a chemical change must equal the mass of all new substances after the chemical change.
39When burning a log in a fireplace, you start with a large piece of wood and get just a little bit of ashes left over. If the law of conservation of mass is true (and it is), what happened to the rest of the mass?
406) A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which each retains their individual chemical properties. The composition of a mixture is variable and there is no limit to how many different mixtures can be made. Mixtures can be separated into the substances that make them up by physical means. There are two types of mixtures - heterogeneous and homogeneous.
41Heterogeneous mixtures have an uneven spreading of the substances, and the distinct parts of the mixture are often easily distinguished. There are two types of heterogeneous mixtures - suspensions and colloids.
42Suspensions are heterogeneous mixtures in which the different parts can settle upon standing. Anything that tells you to shake well before using is a suspension, like orange juice with pulp and italian salad dressing. . The solute particles in a suspension are over 1000nm in diameter
43ii. Colloids are heterogeneous mixtures in which the different parts do not settle, like smoke and fog. Colloids will scatter light, a property called the Tyndall Effect. Tyndall Effect
44ii. Colloids are heterogeneous mixtures in which the different parts do not settle, like smoke and fog. Colloids will scatter light, a property called the Tyndall Effect. The solute particles in a colloid are between 1nm and 1000nm in diameter
45Homogeneous mixtures have an even spreading of the substances, making the parts of the mixture somewhat difficult to distinguish, which is the idea behind “homogenizing” milk - making it the same from the first glass to the last.
46Homogeneous mixtures are often also called solutions Homogeneous mixtures are often also called solutions. In general there are six types of solutions based on the phase of matter of the solute (thing being dissolved, or in lesser amounts) and the solvent (thing doing the dissolving, or in greater amount). The particles in a solution are less than 1nm in diameter.
477) Mixtures must be separable by physical means 7) Mixtures must be separable by physical means. This could be simple, like using a magnet to pull iron out of sand, or using your fingers to pull marshmallows out of Lucky Charms Cereal, but often mixtures are harder than that to separate. Depending on the actual mixture, chemists often use one of four basic ways to separate mixtures - filtration, distillation, crystallization, and chromatography.
48Filtration uses a filter to remove large, undissolved particles from a heterogeneous mixture. The particles get trapped by the filter as the rest of the mixture travels through the filter.
49Distillation uses the different boiling temperatures of the liquid parts of a homogeneous mixture to separate the parts. The part with the lowest boiling point will vaporize (boil out) first, and if desired can be collected and condensed back into a liquid. This process can be repeated until only one part of the original mixture is left.
52Crystallization removes the liquid part(s) of a homogeneous mixture to leave the solid part(s) behind. The liquid is removed by evaporation, or if time is an issue, vaporization.
53Chromatography separates a homogenous mixture based on how far it can travel through a certain area. There are many, many types of chromatography that can do everything from separate dyes in an ink pen to separate the parts of DNA.
598) Previously it was shown how mixtures can be classified into two different types. The same is true about substances. Pure substances can be classified into to groups - elements and compounds.
60Elements contain atoms that are all the same, and cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means (it takes nuclear means). There are 91 naturally occurring elements, and several more that have been made by scientists. The best way to check if a substance is an element is to find it on the Periodic Table of the Elements.
61The periodic table was first put together by Dmitri Mendeleev who arranged the elements by common physical and chemical properties. The pattern of properties repeats as you go through the elements, which is why it is called “periodic”.
63Compounds contain atoms of two or more elements arranged in a specific ratio that is always the same. Unlike mixtures, compounds cannot be separated by physical means; separation can only be done chemically. When a compound is formed, its properties are usually nothing like the properties of the atoms that make it up. Because the atoms of a compound must always be of the same whole number ratio, many different rules can be established.
66The law of definite proportions says that no matter how much of the compound you have, the ratio of the masses of the elements is always the same. This means the percent by mass of each element in a compound can be calculated. For example, if we have 18 g of water, 16 g comes from oxygen, and 2 g comes from hydrogen. Thus water is 89% oxygen by mass and 11% hydrogen by mass.
68The law of multiple proportions says that elements can combine in different whole number ratios to make different compounds. For example, water has a ratio of 1 oxygen atom to 2 hydrogen atoms, while peroxide has a ratio of 2 oxygen atoms to 2 hydrogen atoms. These two compounds have very different properties, and the different percent by mass prove it. Peroxide has a percent by mass of 94% oxygen and 6% hydrogen.
71Matter Mixtures Substances Heterogeneous Homogeneous Elements CompoundsColloidsSuspensionsSolutions
729) Chemical reactions occur when one or more substances are converted into different substances. These are written as chemical equations.
73a) The substances that react in a chemical reaction are called reactants
74The substances that react in a chemical reaction are called reactants b) The different substances that are formed are called products
75The substances that react in a chemical reaction are called reactants The different substances that are formed are called productsc) During a chemical reaction, the laws of conservation of mass and energy, definite proportion, and multiple proportions hold true
77Section 1.31) The periodic table is a complex way to organize all the existing elements and can take many, many different forms
78Section 1.3The periodic table is a complex way to organize all the existing elements and can take many, many different forms2) The typical periodic table organizes the elements by columns and rows
79a) Elements are arranged into vertical columns called groups or families, and all the elements within have similar chemical properties.
80Elements are arranged into vertical columns called groups or families, and all the elements within have similar chemical properties.b) The horizontal rows of elements are called periods, and are arranged in order of increasing atomic number (and usually also increasing atomic mass)
823) The elements of the periodic table are arranged into three general categories – metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
83The elements of the periodic table are arranged into three general categories – metals, nonmetals, and metalloidsa) Metals are elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity, and are malleable, ductile, have a high tensile strength, and are usually lusterous. Metals are found to the left of the stair-step line on the periodic table
84Malleability is the ability to be shaped by being struck (with a hammer)
85Malleability is the ability to be shaped by being struck (with a hammer) ii) Ductility is the ability to be stretched into wire
86Malleability is the ability to be shaped by being struck (with a hammer) ii) Ductility is the ability to be stretched into wireiii) A high tensile strength causes metals to resist breaking when they are pulled
87Malleability is the ability to be shaped by being struck (with a hammer) ii) Ductility is the ability to be stretched into wireiii) A high tensile strength causes metals to resist breaking when they are pullediv) Most metals have luster and a silver color, but there are exceptions
88b) Nonmetals are elements that are not good conductors, usually brittle, dull, and colorful in appearance. More than half of the nonmetals are gases at room temperature. Nonmetals are located to the right of the stair-step line, with the exception of hydrogen
89c) Metalloids are elements that have some properties of metals and some of nonmetals. They are found touching the stair-step line, with the exception of aluminum.
90d) A special group of elements on the periodic table are the Noble Gases. These are elements in group 8A or 18 and have extremely low reactivity with other elements. In 1962 xenon was forced to react with fluorine to form xenon tetrafluoride.