# MISS B LEVEL 1 SCIENCE 2013 Unit 1 Matter: Properties and Change.

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MISS B LEVEL 1 SCIENCE 2013 Unit 1 Matter: Properties and Change

What’s the Matter? Matter is ANYTHING that has mass and takes up space. In case you forgot…  The mass of an object is a fundamental property of the object; a numerical measure of its inertia; a fundamental measure of the amount of matter in the object.  It’s hard to explain because it’s SO fundamental!

What’s the Matter?

Atoms & Even Smaller Stuff Atoms are the smallest unit of an element that still have the properties of that element.  They make up EVERYTHING!  Yes, even you are made up of atoms.

Atoms & Even Smaller Stuff Inside an atom there are even smaller particles called subatomic particles. Protons are subatomic particles that have a positive charge and are located in the nucleus of the atom. Neutrons are subatomic particles that have a neutral charge (no charge) and are located in the nucleus of the atom. Electrons are subatomic particles that have a negative charge and are located in the electron shells of the atom.

Atoms & Even Smaller Stuff The nucleus of an atom is the center of every atom. It contains the protons and neutrons.

Atoms & Even Smaller Stuff

It’s ELEMENTary My Dear Watson An element is a substance that is made of only one type of atom.

It’s ELEMENTary My Dear Watson The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom of that element. It is also the number of electrons in an atom of that element. The Periodic Table of the Elements is organized by atomic number.

It’s ELEMENTary My Dear Watson The atomic symbol is the symbol that scientists use to represent an element on the periodic table. The atomic symbol has either 1 or 2 letters (newer ones have 3 letters). Only the first letter is capitalized.

It’s ELEMENTary My Dear Watson The Periodic Table of the Elements is a chart that shows ALL elements. It is arranged according to an elements Atomic Number. You can tell a lot about the properties of an element by its location on the Periodic Table of the Elements.

It’s ELEMENTary My Dear Watson

The Periodic Table of the Elements Elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in rows and columns. They each have similar properties. Rows on the Periodic Table are called Periods  Like the PERIODic Table…get it??  All elements that are in the same period (row) have the same number of atomic orbitals.  Elements in period 1 have 1 orbital, elements in period 2 have 2 orbitals and so on…

The Periodic Table of the Elements Columns on the Periodic Table are called Groups. The elements in a group have the same number of electrons in their outer orbital.  Those outer electrons are also called valence electrons. They are the ones involved in chemical bonds with other elements. Every element in the first column (group one) has one electron in its outer shell. Every element in the second column (group two) has two electrons in the outer shell. Transition elements (ones in the middle) are different.

It’s Metal, Dude Metals are on the left side of the Periodic Table These metals have properties that you normally associate with the metals you encounter in everyday life:  They are solid (with the exception of mercury, Hg, a liquid).  They are shiny, good conductors of electricity and heat.  They are ductile (they can be drawn into thin wires).  They are malleable (they can be easily hammered into very thin sheets).  All these metals tend to lose electrons easily.

It’s Metal, Dude In the periodic table, you can see a stair-stepped line starting at Boron (B), atomic number 5, and going all the way down to Polonium (Po), atomic number 84. Except for Germanium (Ge) and Antimony (Sb), all the elements to the left of that line can be classified as metals.

Too Cool to be Metal: Nonmetals Nonmetals are on the right side of the Periodic Table. Nonmetals have properties opposite those of the metals.  The nonmetals are brittle.  Not malleable or ductile  Poor conductors of both heat and electricity  Tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions.  Some nonmetals are liquids.

Too Cool to be Metal: Nonmetals The elements to the right of the line are classified as nonmetals (along with hydrogen).

Metalloids The metalloids, or semimetals, have properties that are somewhat of a cross between metals and nonmetals. Metalloids tend to be economically important because of their unique conductivity properties (they only partially conduct electricity), which make them valuable in the semiconductor and computer chip industry.

Metalloids The elements that border the stair-stepped line are classified as metalloids.