Presentation on theme: " No Child Left Behind (2002) ◦ Students must be taught by highly qualified teachers ◦ LEAST restrictive environment IDEA (2004) ◦ FAPE (Free Appropriate."— Presentation transcript:
No Child Left Behind (2002) ◦ Students must be taught by highly qualified teachers ◦ LEAST restrictive environment IDEA (2004) ◦ FAPE (Free Appropriate Public Education) must be provided in the least restrictive environment ◦ Supports the use of technology to maximize accessibility for children with disabilities ◦ Transition services to facilitate movement from secondary schools to post-secondary activities
The focus on the learning disabled in the agricultural science classroom is very important because special education students are “noticeably different in terms of their academic ability in relation to their peers,” (Moffitt, 2004, p. 12). They require more planning and more transition services in order to have a productive life after high school (Moffitt, 2004). “It is our learning disabled students who could possibly benefit most from the things agricultural education has to offer. Career and technical education has the potential to give students concrete skills that they can use in the job market and hopefully have an equal opportunity at employment” (Moffitt, 2004, p. 12). According to an article by Paulsen (2003, p. 10), “Agricultural Education instructors have had the benefit of utilizing the FFA and SAE components of a well-rounded Agricultural Education program to implement differentiated instruction for decades.” Paulsen contends that ag science teachers experiences with SAE and FFA provide the background needed to be successful in the classroom as well (Paulson, 2003).
Inclusion simply means to include all students ◦ Least restrictive environment as outlined by IDEA & NCLB ◦ Special Education laws now demand that the general education classroom be looked at as the first placement option ◦ Agriculture classes are noted for being very diverse, and many times ages, interests, ability levels, maturity and home backgrounds of students in a single class differ quite a bit (Kessell, Wingenbach, & Lawver, 2009). ◦ “We should become better leaders and practitioners of inclusive strategies for meeting the needs of special education students,” (Kessell, Wingenbach, & Lawver, 2009, pg. 60).
Differentiated instruction is a method of instruction designed to recognize students varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, interests; and to react responsively. Differentiated instruction is a process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class. The intent of differentiating instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process (Hall, 2009).
Differentiating successfully is done when a teacher knows the direction in which he/she is headed and has an understanding of the essential leanings for the lesson (Tomlinson, 1999). In Agricultural Education, teachers are experiencing increased student diversity within their classrooms (Stair, 2009). Since the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA), the total population of students served under this legislation has risen from 5% in 1976 to 8.6% in 2006 (Stair, 2009).
Establish prior knowledge Plan lessons with structured objectives Proceed from the simple to the complex by breaking learning into parts Reinforce abstract concepts with concrete examples Think about modifications and accommodations Incorporate sensory elements (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) Give positives before negatives!!
1) Ask for help 2) Differentiate content and process 3) Work with specialists as a team to modify and adapt curriculum 4) Teach students how to learn 5) Get the whole class involved so that everyone is working together to help each other
6) Use cooperative learning and let peers work together to develop friendships 7) Know when to change course 8) Increase your own disability awareness 9) Be aware of the physical classroom setup 10) Provide direction in written form for children with auditory problems and in visual form for those with visual difficulties
11) Teach to strengths while avoiding weaknesses to minimize frustrations 12) Help students with methods to organize their written work 13) Collect files containing additional higher level materials and activities for students who require more challenges 14) Allow students to work on varied assigned tasks 15) Be aware of multiple intelligences
16) Value opinions of parents and community 17) Model appropriate behavior 18) Believe in yourself and your students! Karten, T. (2005) Inclusion strategies that work. Thousand Oaks, CA. Sage.
Cooperative Learning (groups) ◦ Has both social and academic advantages (Karten, 2005) ◦ Academically, students are more willing to learn from each other rather than the teacher (Karten, 2005) ◦ Cooperative communication also bridges schools to adulthood (transition services) (Karten, 2005) Working with students translates to working with co- workers and employers Communication models are taught simply by participating
Always make sure each student in a group has a job Assignments can be random but work better if you plan ahead of time to make sure each group is evenly formed Give each “team” member a job This can be done by assigning each member a task (discussion leader, secretary) Have each student numbered Provide guidelines that hold each member accountable
Use spinners! ◦ They are random and can be used to pick a group by number or letter, and an individual in the group by a number or letter ◦ Spinners are available at teacher supply stores or the following websites ◦ spinners.aspx spinners.aspx ◦ Amazon.com ◦ tId=CLASSROOMBASICS&prodId=42896
Great for guiding a class discussion by focusing answers ◦ You hold up a color of hat and answers must focus on that type of answer Example: white hat only wants answers with information or red hat only wants answers about emotions and feeling Easy manipulative to make on your own or you can order hinking_hats.html hinking_hats.html Edward-Bono/dp/
Some students require a copy of the notes prior to class; however, some students just need a template Note templates are easy to make and can either be just a fill in the blank or include guided questions Examples and resources htm
Create different “centers” in your room Students can work in groups, as partners, or alone Each center has a different set of objectives the students must master or write down in order to move forward Highly learner centered, teacher is free to move about the room and help students who require more assistance
Studying breeds of cattle: ◦ Center 1: American breeds Include pictures of each American breed and require students to copy down notes about each breed, such as characteristics and origin Center 2, might be European and Center 3 English Centers could even be broken down by Breed only, Center 1 Chi, Center 2 Limousine…however you want to teach that unit ◦ Day 1, students move through centers taking down notes and studying breed characteristics ◦ Day 2: only using their own notes, go through centers and identify cattle pictured ◦ Day 3: Test or quiz over what they learned in the centers
Teacher must actively monitor students Have rules about movement through the centers ◦ Only so many students at a time per center ◦ Time limits, etc. Can make a boring lesson fun!
Always review the rules of the games before attempting to play Make sure that all students are actively engaged An additional power point has been put on the new teacher website that has several enrichment activities that are designed for classroom use
What you need to know…
Annual Review and Dismissal (ARD) ◦ Meeting that takes place every year for each student in special education ◦ Meeting participants include: parent(s), diagnostician, special education teacher, general education representative, and career and tech teacher representative (at the secondary level only), and the student (beginning in 8 th grade) ◦ The meeting focuses on the academic progress of the student ◦ Goals are reviewed and progress is shared from all attending ◦ New goals are established, modifications are decided, class schedule for the upcoming school year is set, and state assessments are selected
Your job is to help guide the student from secondary education to post-secondary education and employment Your input should focus on a career pathway Helping develop career skills is essential to the future success of these students, so your role in their education is essential! Try to keep comments positive and constructive. ◦ Remember this is about helping this student become successful and a productive member of society
Disciplinary ARD-as needed; you may be called to sit in on these; usually done when the student is out of their educational environment for too many days and a change of placement is required (such as AEP) Schedule Change ARD-the student requires a schedule change Other reasons-adjust/change modifications; parent called to discuss concerns; teacher called to discuss lack of success
Gradebook or printout of student grades Disciplinary documentation Examples of work ◦ Daily work, tests, writing samples Documentation of modifications/accommodations being met Anything else you might feel is pertinent to discussions regarding this student
You will receive a copy of each special education students IEP and course modifications This is confidential! Modifications may include but are not limited to reduced assignments, extra time, cooling off period, modified assignments/tests, and oral testing If you are unclear about how to follow any of the modifications, please ask your special education teacher for help! ◦ It is the law to follow the paperwork at all times
Hall, B. (2009). Differentiated instruction, reaching all students. Research into Practice, Pearson. Retrieved from 04.pdf 04.pdf Kessler, J., Wingenbach, G., & Lawver, D. (2009). Relationships between special education confidence, knowledge, and selected demographics for agricultural education student teachers. The Journal of Agricultural Education, 50(2), Moffitt, J. (2004). Agricultural education..eoe?. The Agricultural Education Magazine, 77(1), Paulsen, T. (2003). Differentiating instruction in agriculture education. The Agricultural Education Magazine, 75(4), Stair, K.(2009) Identifying confidence levels and instructional strategies of high school agriculture education teachers when working with students with special needs. Ed.D. dissertation, North Carolina State University, United States -- North Carolina. Retrieved October 6, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text.(Publication No. AAT ). Tomlinson, C. A. ( 1999). Mapping a route toward differentiated instruction. Educational Leadership, 57(1), Van Gardener, D. & Whittaker, C. (2006). Planning differentiated, multicultural instruction for secondary inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(3), differentiatedinstructionfor