Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Unit 4: The Periodic Table

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Unit 4: The Periodic Table"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4: The Periodic Table
Chemistry Unit 4: The Periodic Table and Periodicity Outline PowerPoint Presentation by Mr. John Bergmann

2 The Elements Element names come from a variety of sources. elements known to the ancients… S, Sn, C, Cu place names… Fr, Po, Ge, Ga, Eu, Am, Cf, Sc famous people… Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, Bh foreign languages… W, Fe, Au, Ag, Pb, Sn, Cu mythology-related names… Th, Pm, Ta, Ti, Pd names related to element properties… Hg, Xe

3 Background on the Periodic Table
Dmitri Mendeleev: given credit for Periodic Table (~1870) Mendeleev -- organized Table by increasing atomic mass -- left spaces and predicted properties of undiscovered elements Moseley Henry Moseley: put elements in order of increasing ____________. atomic number

4 Describing the Periodic Table
periodic law: the properties of elements repeat every so often period: horizontal row; there are 7 group (family): vertical column; there are 18 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 9 10 11 8 7 6 5 4 1 3 2 1 2 3 4 6 7 5

5 Regions of the Table metals: left side of Table; form cations properties: malleable (can hammer into shape) lustrous (shiny) ductile (can pull into wire) good conductors (heat and electricity)

6 Regions of the Table (cont.)
nonmetals: right side of Table; form anions properties: good insulators gases or brittle solids neon sulfur iodine bromine Ne S8 I2 Br2

7 Regions of the Table (cont.)
metalloids (semimetals): “stair” between metals and nonmetals (B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po) metals nonmetals computer chips properties: in-between those of metals and nonmetals; “semiconductors” Si and Ge computer chips

8 alkaline earth metals:
alkali metals: group 1 (except H); 1+ charge; very reactive alkaline earth metals: group 2; 2+ charge; less reactive than alkalis halogens: group 17; 1– charge; very reactive noble gases: group 18; no charge; unreactive lanthanides: elements 58–71 contain f orbitals actinides: elements 90–103 coinage metals: group 11 transition elements: groups 3–12; variable charges main block (representative) elements: groups 1, 2, 13–18

9 alkali metals actinides alkaline earth metals coinage metals halogens transition elements noble gases metalloids lanthanides main block elements more nonmetals hydrogen more metals

10 Same number of valence e– = similar properties
Li Na 1s2 2s1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 In any group, the element BELOW has one more occupied energy level than does the element ABOVE. Li Na The period that an element is in is the same as the energy level that its valence electrons are in. Li Na in 2nd period in 3rd period v.e– in 2nd E.L. v.e– in 3rd E.L.

11 Periodicity there are trends in properties of elements -- left-right AND up-down trends atomic radius: the size of a neutral atom …increases as we go WHY? add a new energy level each time …decreases as we go WHY? it has to do with… coulombic attraction: attraction between (+) and (–)

12 Coulombic attraction depends on…
2– 2+ 1– 1+ amount of charge distance between charges As we go , more coulombic attraction, no new energy level, more pull, smaller size + + + H He +

13 shielding effect: kernel e– “shield” valence e–
from attractive force of the nucleus K v.e– Li v.e– tougher to remove easier to remove -- caused by kernel and valence e– repelling each other As we go , shielding effect increases.

14 ionic radius: the size of an ion cations anions Ca atom Ca2+ ion Cl atom Cl1– ion 20 p+ 20 p+ 17 p+ 17 p+ 20 e– 18 e– 17 e– 18 e– Cl1– Ca Cl Ca2+ cations are smaller anions are larger

15 ionization energy: the energy required to remove an e– from an atom
M + 1st I.E. M e– removes 1st e– M + 2nd I.E. M e– M + 3rd I.E. M e– Each successive ionization requires more energy than the previous one. As we go , 1st I.E…. decreases. (due to the shielding effect) As we go , 1st I.E…. increases.

16 electronegativity: the tendency for a bonded atom to attract e– to itself Linus Pauling quantified the electronegativity scale. As we go , electronegativity… decreases. As we go , electronegativity… increases. electronegativity increases

17 Resources - Periodic Table
Objectives Worksheet - vocabulary Activity - aliens Activity - coloring periodic table Worksheet - periodic table paragraph PP Worksheet - ionization energies Lab - periodic trends Project - element brochure Packet – textbook questions (general) Outline (general)

18 Resources - Periodic Table
Objectives Episode 7 – The Periodic Table Worksheet - vocabulary Activity - aliens cards: A B key Activity - coloring periodic table Worksheet - periodic table paragraph Worksheet - ionization energies Video 07: Periodic Table The development and arrangement of the periodic table of elements is examined. (added 2006/10/08) World of Chemistry > 08: Chemical Bonds Lab - periodic trends database Project - element brochure example timeline Worksheet - periodic table textbook questions Outline (general)

Download ppt "Unit 4: The Periodic Table"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google