Presentation on theme: "Bellringer KEEP YOUR HOMEWORK FOR NOW 1.In your Glossary, define river valley 2.On your Bellringer sheet: Does Sumer have all of STAIR? Give examples for."— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer KEEP YOUR HOMEWORK FOR NOW 1.In your Glossary, define river valley 2.On your Bellringer sheet: Does Sumer have all of STAIR? Give examples for each letter.
STAIR Specialized workers Technology Advanced cities Institutions Record keeping
Agenda 1.Problems in Sumer 2.Sumer Review 3.Fall of the Sumerians 4.Mesopotamian Empires
Objectives Students will be able to… 12.Summarize key aspects Sumerian civilization. 13.Describe the fall of Sumerian civilization. 14.Define empire.
Problems in Sumer In groups, discuss the three problems Sumerians faced and try to identify the solution that will keep your society alive! (We will fill in the chart at the end together) Objective #12
Problems in Sumer P ROBLEM S OLUTION 1.Unpredictable flooding Irrigation Cooperation (institutions) 2.No natural resources Trade 3.No natural barriers Defensive walls (of mud) Organize armies
Sumer: Geography Southern Mesopotamia Part of the Fertile Crescent Jericho Aleppo
Physical Geography Two rivers, lots of fertile land Flat Mountains and deserts beyond the flat land Neighbors were nomads in the desert and northern Mesopotamia…we’ll meet them soon
Sumer: Religion Polytheism – many gods – What were their gods? Ziggurat – temple and city-center – Animal sacrifices and offerings Why are priests so important in Sumer?
Temple to Nanna, Ur This large temple, dedicated to the god Nanna, was built around 2100 B.C. by King Ur-Nammu, in the ancient Mesopotamian city of Ur. (Michael S. Yamashita/Corbis; ABC-CLIO)
Offerings to the Gods King Ur-Nammu makes an offering to the moon god Nanna. Ur-Nammu reigned over the Sumerian city of Ur from about 2112 to 2095 B.C. The stela dates to around 2060 B.C. (Bettmann/Corbis; ABC-CLIO)
Achievements Architecture (ziggurat) Writing – cuneiform – Earliest writing used pictograms, pictures that stand for words – Later evolved into a set of symbols representing about 300 sounds
Early Cuneiform Clay tablet with pictograms from Mesopotamia. (Multimedia Library; ABC-CLIO)
Sumerian inscription, detail of a diorite statue of Gudea of Lagash, 22nd century BC (Brittannica)
Ancient Sumerian tablet with cuneiform, one of the earliest forms of writing. This tablet, from 2039 BC, tracks disbursements of wages to supervisors of day laborers. (Library of Congress; ABC-CLIO) Detail from an Assyrian tablet with cuneiform writing. The Assyrian alphabet contained 19 simple letters and approximately 300 cuneiform symbols. (Shutterstock; ABC-CLIO)
Arts Sumerian figurine of a woman sitting and holding a small vase. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource; ABC- CLIO)
Standard of Ur – War
Standard of Ur – Peace
Sumer: Political Priests ruled in peace, military leaders during wars Eventually, a military leader made himself king and created a dynasty
Sumer: Political Each city-state had its own king – Ur, Uruk, Umma, Lagash, Kish Leaders collected taxes and organized labor (for, say, irrigation)
Sumer: Economic Agriculture-based Trade very important – Traded food for stone, wood, and metal – Then made tools and traded them for more stuff
Sumer: Social Social classes (from top to bottom) – Priests and kings – Wealthy merchants – Workers and farmers – Slaves Why were merchants so respected?
Women’s Rights Women could – Own property – Be educated – Have important jobs Women could not – Rule the city or be the head priest
Fall of Sumer Objective #13
NOT a Country Sumer is not a country! – Individual city-states with their own leaders and laws – Not united…fought each other often – Linked by similar cultures Cultural diffusion
Sumer’s Neighbors Northern Mesopotamia was not as fertile, many nomads lived there Why might they cause problems for the Sumerians? Why were the Sumerians unable to defend themselves from invasion?
Mr. Poth’s Rules of World History Rule #1: Divided, you fall
Sargon of Akkad
[Time Life Pictures/Getty Images]; ABC-CLIO Sargon of Akkad
Political Units City City-state Kingdom Empire
Nomads Invade Akkad declines – Famine – Internal fighting – Invasions Nomads from the west invade – Found new empire in the city of Babylon
Mr. Poth’s Rules of World History Rule #2: Beware the nomads
Babylon Babylon, on the Euphrates and near the Tigris, controls all trade on both rivers Dominates Mesopotamia for 300 years Why did Babylon last, while Akkad did not?
Mr. Poth’s Rules of World History Rule #3: He who controls trade, controls the world
Sumer’s Legacy Cuneiform and ziggurats used throughout Mesopotamian history for thousands of years after the fall of the Sumerian city-states CULTURAL DIFFUSION!
Post-Sumerian Ziggurat View of the Mesopotamian ziggurat at Choga Zanbil in present-day western Iran, 13th century BC. (Diego Lezama Orezzoli/Corbis; ABC-CLIO)
Babylon [Ridpath, John Clark, Ridpath's History of the World, 1901]; ABC-CLIO
Hammurabi’s Code One ruler of the Babylonian empire, Hammurabi, became famous – Made a strong empire – Created a code of laws Objective #15
Hammurabi [Library of Congress]; ABC-CLIO
Hammurabi’s Code Louvre museum
Homework Define the words you wrote down. Do the “summarize key aspects of Sumerian Civ” worksheets Study for Skills quiz on Wednesday!!!