Presentation on theme: "Bellringer KEEP YOUR HOMEWORK FOR NOW 1.In your Glossary, define river valley 2.On your Bellringer sheet: Does Sumer have all of STAIR? Give examples for."— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer KEEP YOUR HOMEWORK FOR NOW 1.In your Glossary, define river valley 2.On your Bellringer sheet: Does Sumer have all of STAIR? Give examples for each letter.
STAIR Specialized workers Technology Advanced cities Institutions Record keeping
Agenda 1.Problems in Sumer 2.Sumer Review 3.Fall of the Sumerians 4.Mesopotamian Empires
Objectives Students will be able to… 12.Summarize key aspects Sumerian civilization. 13.Describe the fall of Sumerian civilization. 14.Define empire.
Problems in Sumer In groups, discuss the three problems Sumerians faced and try to identify the solution that will keep your society alive! (We will fill in the chart at the end together) Objective #12
Problems in Sumer P ROBLEM S OLUTION 1.Unpredictable flooding Irrigation Cooperation (institutions) 2.No natural resources Trade 3.No natural barriers Defensive walls (of mud) Organize armies
Sumer: Geography Southern Mesopotamia Part of the Fertile Crescent Jericho Aleppo
Physical Geography Two rivers, lots of fertile land Flat Mountains and deserts beyond the flat land Neighbors were nomads in the desert and northern Mesopotamia…we’ll meet them soon
Sumer: Religion Polytheism – many gods – What were their gods? Ziggurat – temple and city-center – Animal sacrifices and offerings Why are priests so important in Sumer?
Temple to Nanna, Ur This large temple, dedicated to the god Nanna, was built around 2100 B.C. by King Ur-Nammu, in the ancient Mesopotamian city of Ur. (Michael S. Yamashita/Corbis; ABC-CLIO)
Offerings to the Gods King Ur-Nammu makes an offering to the moon god Nanna. Ur-Nammu reigned over the Sumerian city of Ur from about 2112 to 2095 B.C. The stela dates to around 2060 B.C. (Bettmann/Corbis; ABC-CLIO)
Achievements Architecture (ziggurat) Writing – cuneiform – Earliest writing used pictograms, pictures that stand for words – Later evolved into a set of symbols representing about 300 sounds
Early Cuneiform Clay tablet with pictograms from Mesopotamia. (Multimedia Library; ABC-CLIO)
Sumerian inscription, detail of a diorite statue of Gudea of Lagash, 22nd century BC (Brittannica)
Ancient Sumerian tablet with cuneiform, one of the earliest forms of writing. This tablet, from 2039 BC, tracks disbursements of wages to supervisors of day laborers. (Library of Congress; ABC-CLIO) Detail from an Assyrian tablet with cuneiform writing. The Assyrian alphabet contained 19 simple letters and approximately 300 cuneiform symbols. (Shutterstock; ABC-CLIO)
Arts Sumerian figurine of a woman sitting and holding a small vase. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource; ABC- CLIO)