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The Three Primary Subatomic Particles...  Protons (positive)  Neutrons (neutral)  Electrons (negative)  Note: protons and neutrons are made up of.

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Presentation on theme: "The Three Primary Subatomic Particles...  Protons (positive)  Neutrons (neutral)  Electrons (negative)  Note: protons and neutrons are made up of."— Presentation transcript:

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3 The Three Primary Subatomic Particles...  Protons (positive)  Neutrons (neutral)  Electrons (negative)  Note: protons and neutrons are made up of even smaller particles called Quarks

4  # of protons = the atomic number  Atomic number = # of protons  # of protons determines which element it is!  Who is element # 15?  How many protons does lithium have?  What is the atomic number of tin? 50 Phosphorus 3

5  Number of neutrons can vary, even for the same element.  Neutrons affect the atomic mass  Isotopes  same # of protons (same element)  different # of neutrons (isotope)  Elements can have many different isotopes  Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carbon-14,  Uranium-235, Uranium-238  Neutrons contribute to the “Strong Force” that holds the nucleus together.

6  Sum of the protons and neutrons  Electrons are not included  Too small (1/2000)  What is the atomic mass of this atom?

7  A neutral atom has no charge.  positive charges = negative charges.  A neutral atom has the same # of electrons as protons  How many electrons does this atom have?

8 Atomic Number Protons + Neutrons Atomic Mass #Protons Element Symbol # Neutrons = Atomic Mass – Atomic Number

9 Find the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in the following elements

10 17 protons 17 electrons = 18 neutrons 95 protons 95 electrons = 148 neutrons

11  If an atom is not neutral, then it has a charge.  Ion  Charged particle  This atom has: 3 protons (+++) 2 electrons (- -)  Net charge is +1 and it is written as Li +1  It is called a Cation

12  If an atom is not neutral, then it has a charge.  Ion  Charged particle  This atom has: 9 protons ( ) 10 electrons ( )  It is written as F -1  It is called an Anion

13  How many protons?  How many neutrons?  How many electrons (if the atom is neutral?)

14 n How many protons? –The atomic number n How many neutrons? –Atomic mass minus atomic number n How many electrons (if the atom is neutral?) –Same as # of protons

15  Ion :  Anion:  Cation:  Isotope :  Atomic number :  Atomic mass : Charged Particle Same # of Protons, Different # of Neutrons. # of Protons Protons + Neutrons Negatively Charged Particle Positively Charged Particle

16  Just like members of a family, certain elements of the periodic table share similarities. Like good looks!

17  Families of elements are groups of elements that have similar properties.  Groups can be a single column or a whole section of the periodic table.  Let ’ s start with the big groups first.

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20  Similar metals are grouped together.  Two groups of metals are located on the left side of your periodic table.  Some are located on the right side of the table left of the stair steps. Most are located in the middle of the periodic table.

21  The elements that are usually poor conductors of heat and electricity.

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23  First notice the location of nonmetals.  Second notice what these elements are.

24  The elements that are intermediate conductors of heat and electricity. (can do it but only under certain conditions)  Sometimes called Metalloids  Found by the “ stair-step ” divider between metals and non-metals

25  Specific groups that have similar properties are in the columns on the periodic table.  These are the numbers 1-18 or 1A -8A across the top of the table.

26  The highly reactive metallic elements located in Group 1 of the periodic table.  Tend to lose 1 electron  They are Cations (+1 charge)  React with water sodium and potassiumBrainiac

27  Alkali Metals are located on the left edge of the periodic table

28  The reactive metallic elements located in Group 2 of the periodic table.  Tend to lose 2 electrons  They are Cations (+2 charge)  Do not react with water. Lumps of Calcium

29  The alkaline-earth metals make up the second column of elements from the left edge of the periodic table.

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31  These are metallic elements in Group 3-12 of your periodic table.  They are “ transition metals ” because they shift from being similar to group 2 (alkali metals) over to being like group 13 moving left to right.

32  The highly reactive elements located in Group 17 of the Periodic table.  Are all diatomic(F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 )  Atoms Tend to gain 1 electron  They are Anions (-1 charge) Halogen Lamps Bromine burning

33  The halogens are in the second column from the right of the periodic table.

34  No not kings and queens.  The unreactive gaseous elements located on Group 18 of the periodic table.

35  Noble gases are located on right edge of the periodic table.  And on the throne when kings and queens fart !

36  Diatomic = two atoms  There are 7 diatomic atoms  N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2, H 2  Remember them by the rule of “7”  Starts with element 7 = Nitrogen  Forms a 7 through oxygen and down to iodine  The 7 th diatomic element is hydrogen 

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38 Man-Made Elements Which are the man-made or synthetic Elements? How are synthetic elements made?  Cyclotron, protons, alpha particles and heavy atoms Why do scientists continue to try to make elements?


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