2Periodic Table Describes trends in physical and chemical properties number of electrons, protons, neutronschargereactivitytype of element
3Properties Chemical Properties are based on the number of valence e-s Elements in same group/family elements have same # of valence e-sgroup 1 = 1, group 2 = 2group 13-18, drop the “1” in front of the group #ex: 13 = 3, 14 = 4Helium has 2Groups 3-12 use a different set of electrons, so it doesn’t follow the typical pattern
4Charge Recall: “Octet Rule” atoms will gain, lose, or share e-s to become chemically stable [8 e-s in valence shell]PT indicates charge by groups as wellagain, groups 3-12 are left out of this
11Oxidation #Oxidation Number – the number of e-s an atom will gain, lose, or share in order to become stablebasically the same as the charge on the PTagain, leave out groups 3-12GROUP number indicates the number of outer-shell e-sgroups 1, 2, then groups (except He)Always 4 or less [+ or -]
13In order to become stable… …an Oxygen atom an will…lose 6 e-s gain 6 e-s lose 2 e-s gain 2 e-s OR none of the above…a Calcium atom will…lose 6 e-s gain 6 e-s lose 2 e-s gain 2 e-s OR none of the above… a Sodium atom will…lose 7 e-s gain 7 e-s lose 1 e-s, gain 1 e- OR none of the above
14In order to become stable… …a Bromine atom an will…lose 7 e-s gain 7 e-s lose 1 e-s gain 1 e-s OR none of the above…a Xenon atom will…lose 8 e-s gain 8 e-s lose 0 e-s gain 0 e-s OR none of the above
15The Periodic TablePeriodic = in a regular, repeating fashion Early designs of the PT were based on use, physical properties, and even spelling.
19Mendeleev’s Contributions Organized first working Periodic Tableaccording to chemical properties and atomic massLeft gaps for undiscovered elementsHe was able to predict many properties of these undiscovered elements based on their location
20Periodic Table – cont’d column = group/familyelements in a family have the same chemical properties [valence e-s, reactivity…]row = periodproperties of elements repeat across a period [size of atom, ease of losing e-s]
22Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals Reactive metals Have two outer shell electrons
23Groups 3-12 Transition Metals “normal” metals have one to ten outer shell electrons
24Groups 3-12 cont’dLanthanide (57-71) & Actinide (89-103) series can be considered to be “inner” transition metals.
25Metals vs. Non-Metals Metals Non-Metals Location left of the “stairs” right of the “stairsAppearancelustrouswaxy or dull“Shape-ability”malleable & ductilebrittleConductivity [heat & electricity]very goodpoor - better as insulatorsPhysical Statesolid at room temp [except Hg]gas or solid at room temperature [except Br]Chargetypically cationstypically anions
26Metalloids May have properties of metals and nonmetals Located on the stair-stepSome are semiconductors: they only conduct electricity under certain conditionsThis makes metalloids excellent switches for computers
27Group 17 Halogens Means “Salt Former” Highly reactive nonmetals Have seven outer shell electrons
28Group 18 Noble Gases Completely unreactive nonmetals Will not bond with any atomHave a full outer shell of electronsEight for all but HeliumHe has two outer shell electrons
29Practice Which group is known as the Halogens? Group 1, Group 2, Groups 3 – 12, Group 17, Group 18Which group has a stable number of outer shell electrons?Group 1, Group 2, Groups 3 – 12, Group 17, Group 18What is the group name for Group 2?Alkaline Earth Metals, Alkali Metals, Halogens, Transition Metals, Noble Gases
30Practice Which group is known as the Transition Metals? Group 1, Group 2, Groups 3 – 12, Group 17, Group 18Which group has two outer shell electrons?Group 1, Group 2, Groups 3 – 12, Group 17, Group 18What is the group name for Group 18?Alkaline Earth Metals, Alkali Metals, Halogens, Transition Metals, Noble Gases
31Practice Elements of which group are known as the Alkali Metals? Group 1, Group 2, Groups 3 – 12, Group 17, Group 18Elements of which group have a variable number of outer shell electrons?
32PracticeWhich scientist arranged elements in a working Periodic Table?Galileo, Aristotle, Al-Gebbri, MendeleevWhich property of elements is the basis for arrangement in the Periodic Table?Atomic Mass, Boiling Point, Number of Neutrons, Chemical PropertiesWhich subatomic particle determines the chemical properties of an element?Protons, Neutrons, Electrons, Quarks
33Practice Vertical columns on the Periodic Table are Groups, Rows, Periods, ClansHow many valence electrons would Sulfur have? (Group 16)2, 6, 8, 16, 32Nonmetals are locatedTo the left of the stair-step, On the stair-step, To the right of the stair-step, At the very bottom
34Problems Which group on the Periodic Table are known as “Halogens”? Group 1, Group 2, Groups 3 – 12, Group 17, Group 18Ductile, Malleable, & solid at room temp.Metalloids, Nonmetals, Metals, YodaUsually gas at room temp., brittle, dull or waxyMetalloids, Metals, Nonmetals, Your HAIR!
35Electronegativity ability to hold onto outer valence e-s high electronegativity = tightly held e-slow electronegativity = loosely held e-s
36Electronegativity – cont’d increases as you go from left to right across a period.easier to give away a few [like those to the L] than to steal many [like those on the R]
37Electronegativity – cont’d decreases as you go down a group.“every electron matters” – those with many can afford to lose some, those with little can’telectrons shield the nucleons [protons & neutrons]the farther out electrons are from the nucleus, the less tightly held they are [away from + charge]
38Reactivity how likely or vigorously an element reacts with others Metals:decreases as you go from left to right across a period.reactivity increases as you go down a group .Why? It’s easier for those elements to get rid of electrons.
39Reactivity – cont’d Non-Metals: increases as you go from the left to the right across a period.decreases as you go down the group.Why? It’s easier for those elements to steal electrons.
40Atomic Radius decreases as you go from left to right across a period. attractive forces btw opposite charges (electrons outside / protons inside) cause cloud to be 'sucked' together a little tighter.
41Atomic Radius – cont’d increases as you go down a group. Why? Large jump in size of nucleus (p+s + n0s) each time you move from period to period down a group.also, new E levels added when moving down periods
42Alkali metals (not H) (1) Inner transition (1) Gs and Ls correct (1)Transition metals (1)Metalloids (1)Halogens (1)IA, IIA, etc. labels (1)Noble gasses (1)Alkali metals (not H) (1)Inner transition (1)Alkaline earth metals (1)Legend filled in (1)VIIAVIAVAIVAIIIAIIAIAGLMarks: 10Total: 20