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Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Chapter 11 Individual Differences and Measurement of Energy Capacities

2 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Specificity High O 2 max in one event doesn’t ensure a high O 2 max in another event. High Aerobic  High Anaerobic Power High Anaerobic  High Aerobic Power

3 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Generality High aerobic power usually indicates above-average power in related activities.

4 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Overview of Energy-Transfer Capacity During Exercise

5 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Anaerobic Energy Transfer: Evaluation of Immediate Energy Systems Power tests: used to measure brief maximal capacity –Tests generally < 6 seconds Power is calculated as Power = force × distance time

6 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Power Is Expressed in Watts 1 watt = ft-lbs · s -1 1 watt = kCal · min -1 1 watt = hp 1 watt = 6.12 kg · m · min -1

7 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Stair Sprinting Power Tests Time to sprint up 6 steps, 3 at a time, is determined Power = kg body wt × distance in meters time in seconds

8 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

9 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Jumping-Power Tests Sergeant jump test –Low correlation with scores and actual ATP-PCr energy transfer Standing broad jump

10 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

11 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Interrelationships Among Power Performance Tests Power is highly task specific. The usefulness of a test increases when it mimics sport performance.

12 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Evaluation of Immediate Energy System: Physiologic Tests Physiologic biochemical measures evaluate –Size of intramuscular ATP-PCr pool –Depletion rate of ATP and PCr in all-out short-duration exercise –O 2 deficit calculated from initial phase of exercise O 2 consumption curve –Alactic portion of recovery O 2 consumption

13 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Evaluation of the Short-Term Energy System After a few seconds of work, glycolysis generates increasingly more energy for ATP resynthesis. As the rate of glycolysis increases, lactate accumulates. Blood lactate levels provide the most common indicator of glycolytic activity.

14 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Anaerobic Power Performance and Capacity Tests Performances that substantially activate short-term energy systems require maximum exercise for up to 3 minutes. –Influences Age Skill Gender Motivation Body size

15 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Tests that Most Closely Mimic the Sport’s Performance Are the Best! Some good, commonly used tests include –Katch test –Wingate test Both give measures of peak power and anaerobic capacity.

16 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

17 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

18 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Gender Differences Males generally score better than females. Difference in gender occur even in children and adolescents despite corrections for lean body mass. Evidence suggests a biologic difference in anaerobic exercise between genders.

19 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Maximally Accumulated O 2 Deficit Determination of MAOD provides another indirect measure of anaerobic capacity. MAOD is determined using the linear exercise intensity _ O 2 consumption relationship. Data is collected from several submaximal treadmill trials. Correlates positively with other tests

20 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Biologic Indicators for Anaerobic Power Blood lactate levels Glycogen depletion

21 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

22 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Individual Differences in Anaerobic Energy-Transfer Capacity Factors contributing to differences include –Previous training –Capacity to buffer acid metabolites –Motivation

23 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Effects of Training Anaerobically trained individuals have –Greater lactate-generating capabilities –Greater depletion of muscle glycogen

24 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Buffering of Acid Metabolites Training fails to increase alkaline reserve. Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate may increase buffering capacity and improve performance.

25 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Motivation Individuals willing to tolerate pain or exhibit mental toughness are able to generate more lactate and experience greater glycogen depletion.

26 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Aerobic Energy: The Long-Term Energy System Maximal oxygen capacity plays a large role in determining endurance performance. Attaining a high O 2 max requires integration of pulmonary, CV, and neuromuscular function. O 2 max is a fundamental measure of physiologic functional capacity for exercise.

27 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Assessment of Maximal O 2 Consumption Considerable research has been done to develop standardized tests to assess aerobic power and provide norms related to –Age –Gender –Body size –Training state

28 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Criteria for Maximal O 2 Consumption A leveling off in O 2 consumption despite an increase in exercise intensity generally assures O 2 max has been reached. Controversy regarding precise criteria remains. O 2peak = highest value of oxygen consumption measured during graded test exercise

29 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Maximal O 2 Consumption Tests O 2max is determined using exercise that activate the body’s large muscle groups –Treadmill –Bench stepping –Stationary cycling Test usually consists of graded exercise with much prodding to reach O 2max or O 2peak.

30 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Test Comparisons Two popular protocols are available. –Continuous –Discontinuous

31 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Factors that Affect Max O 2 Consumption Mode of exercise Heredity State of training Gender Body size and composition Age

32 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Mode of Exercise Influences muscle mass activated Treadmill usually > cycling Bench stepping similar to treadmill scores Arm cranking only ~ 70% treadmill values Specificity and skill are very influential in many modes.

33 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Heredity Most physical fitness characteristics demonstrate high heritability. Research shows that up to 93% of difference in O 2max is due to heredity.

34 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition State of Training 5 − 20% variation in scores seen as fitness levels of individuals changed at time of testing

35 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Gender Women achieve scores on average 15 − 30% lower than men. Differences may be due to 1. Muscle mass 2. Hemoglobin concentration Considerable variability exists; many women score higher than the average man.

36 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Body Size and Composition Body size creates large differences. Common practice: Express O 2 max relative to body mass Controversy exists about various methods of adjusting scores to normalcy for gender differences Adjustments made by each factor gives different results.

37 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Age O 2 max declines after age 25 by ~ 1% per year. Age also influences O 2 max values in boys and girls.

38 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Aerobic Capacity Prediction Tests Submaximal tests are used to –Decrease cost –Decrease time –Decrease risk

39 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition A Word of Caution about Predictions All prediction tests contain an error known as the standard error of estimate (SEE). SEE is expressed in measurement units used for prediction or as a percentage. Sometimes the SEE can be large. At times, the SEE is small, and the test is more useful.

40 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Prediction Tests Commonly Used Walking tests Endurance runs Step tests

41 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Predictions Based on Heart Rate Use exercise or postexercise heart rate and a standardized exercise regimen Apply linear relationship between heart rate and O 2 consumption Data are gathered at several workloads. A line or “best fit” is extended through predicted maximum heart rate.

42 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Assumptions Required for HR Predictions Linearity of HR – O 2 consumption through all exercise intensities Similar maximum HR for all subjects Constant economy and mechanical efficiency throughout exercise Limited daily variations in HR (usually 5 beats/ min -1 )

43 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition The Step Test Practical test that uses HR during recovery Prediction equations applied to test results estimate O 2max with reasonable accuracy.

44 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Predictions from Nonexercise Data Data used –Gender –BMI –Physical activity rating (PAR) 0 − 10 over 6 months –Perceived functional ability (PFA)

45 Copyright © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition Predictions from Nonexercise Data Regression equations are then used to calculate scores.


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