Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table of Elements"— Presentation transcript:
1The Periodic Table of Elements Chapter 17.5 and 17.6
2Who made it?The first periodic table was constructed by a Russian Chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev, in 1869Mendeleev arranged the elements in his table according to their atomic mass.This was later changed to atomic number which is the way it is arranged today.
3The Periodic TableMendeleev arranged the elements in such a way that the elements with similar properties were in the same column.The columns are called groupsElements found in the same column are said to be in the same group.The rows are called periodsElements found in the same row are said to be in the same period
4The Periodic TableGroup 1Group 21st Period2nd Period3rd Period
5Why is it set up this wayMendeleev created his periodic table in this way because he noticed patterns occurring with the elements.Because he set up his table based on the patterns he noticed, Mendeleev left blank spaces in which he was able to predict the properties of elements that had yet to be discovered.His table was proven useful when these elements were discovered and had properties that were a close match to his predictions
7The Modern Periodic Table The Modern Periodic table is not arranged by atomic mass, but by atomic numberAtomic number = number of protonsMendeleev did not know about protons in 1872There are 18 groups on the periodic table and 7 periods
8The Modern Periodic Table The majority of the Elements found on the periodic table are metalsMetals are shiny, opaque, and are good conductors of electricity and heatMany of them are malleable, meaning they can be hammered into shape or bent with out breakingThey are also ductile, which means they can be drawn into wire.Most are solid at room temperature except for Mercury (Hg), Gallium (Ga), Cesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr).
10The Periodic TableAll of the non metal elements are found on the right of the Periodic Table, except for Hydrogen.Non metals are very poor conductors of electricity and heat.They are brittle and shatter when hammered.
14The Modern Periodic Table The modern Periodic Table has a line that separates the metals from the non-metals.This line is often referred to as the staircase.To the left of the stair case are the metals (except Hydrogen!)
16The Periodic TableThe modern Periodic Table has a line that separates the metals from the non-metals.This line is often referred to as the staircase.To the left of the stair case are the metals (except Hydrogen!)To the right of the stair case are the non metals.Don’t forget Hydrogen!
18The Periodic TableThe modern Periodic Table has a line that separates the metals from the non-metals.This line is often referred to as the staircase.To the left of the stair case are the metals (except Hydrogen!)To the right of the stair case are the non metals.Don’t forget Hydrogen!Along the stair case are a special group called metalloids
19Metalloids have some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of non metals They are in-between metals and non metals
20The Atom and The Periodic Table Aside from metals and non metals the periodic table is organized in two ways.These two ways are inGroups/FamiliesPeriods
21Rows on the TableRemember, the atomic number = the number of electrons.The first row has Hydrogen with one electron and Helium with two electrons both in energy level one.Therefore, Helium has the first energy level full.We consider this as being stable.
22Rows on the TableIf you look at the second row, it starts with lithium and ends with neon.Lithium has three electrons and neon has ten electrons.Lithium has two electrons in the first shell and one in the second.Neon has two electrons in the first shell and eight in the second.The first column always starts the new shell.The last column always fills the shell.
23GroupsGroups or families are the vertical columns on the periodic table.Groups are numbered 1 through 18.These elements have the same number of electrons in their outer orbits.Valence Electrons!They also have many characteristics in common.The group IIa elements; beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, & barium. They are called the Alkali Earth Metals.
24Alkali MetalsThe first group of elements on the periodic table are called The Alkali Metals
26Alkali MetalsThe first group of elements on the periodic table are called The Alkali MetalsThe Alkali Metals are very reactiveMany of them like sodium react violently with waterAs you move down the group they become more and more reactive
27Alkaline Earth MetalsThe second group on the periodic table are called Alkaline Earth Metals
29Alkaline Earth MetalsThe second group on the periodic table are called Alkaline Earth MetalsAlkaline Earth Metals react with water but not as violently as Alkali MetalsAlkaline Earth Metals also do not melt or change when placed in fire
30Transition MetalsGroup 3 through 12 are known as the Transition Metals
32Transition MetalsGroup 3 through 12 are known as the Transition MetalsTransition metals are the more familiar metals such as copper, gold, silver, iron, nickel, and chromium.These metals are usually shiny, do not react well with water, and melt when heated
33Inner Transition Metals The inner transition metals belong in the 6th and the 7th period
35Inner Transition Metals The inner transition metals belong in the 6th and the 7th periodThe Lanthanide Series belongs in the 6th period because of its propertiesthe Actinide Series belongs in the 7th period because of its propertiesInserting them into the Periodic Table would make a long periodic table that wouldn’t fit on a piece of paper!Uranium, an actinide, is used in nuclear power plants
36Groups 13-16Groups have no common names but contain many elements familiar to us.Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, & Oxygen can all be found in groups 13 through 16Since they don’t have a special name we just use the first element in the group as the nameie. Boron GroupEach member of the group has the same number of valence electronsSome of these elements are metals, metalloids or non-metals depending on where they are found relative to the stair case
37Boron GroupCarbon GroupNitrogen GroupOxygen Group
40Halogens Group 17 are known as the Halogens Halogens in Greek mean “salt forming”Many elements in this group form salts with metalsIe. Sodium ChlorideSome Halogens such as Bromine and Iodine are found in Halogen lamps which glow brighter without burning out quicklyChlorine is a Halogen
41The Noble GasesGroup 18 are known as the Noble Gases
43The Noble Gases Group 18 are known as the Noble Gases The noble gases do not react with any other elements or themselvesThey are chemically stable or unreactiveThey get their name from the Nobles who would never interact with the common folk!