Presentation on theme: "BUKHARA IS THE PEARL OF THE EAST"— Presentation transcript:
1BUKHARA IS THE PEARL OF THE EAST Cheked by: Navruzov B.B.
2Bukhara citadel of Ark obtained its modern appearance in the period of the Man-ghit dynasty ( ). Ark was the center of Bukhara statehood. There was a palace of Bukhara amir, mosques, exchequer, governmental administration and prison. Its grand entrance fronted the Registan Square. The massive gates were reinforced with two towers connected by the gallery above. In the past a lash was hanged above the gate symbolizing the power of amir. Arc suffered much in 1920 when Red Army conducted shell attack and bombed the city. Since 1945, the Bukhara State Architectural Art Museum-Preserve has been situated in the Ark citadel.
3Bolo-Hauz mosqueIn the past Registan Square was occupied by numerous beautiful buildings. Today there is only monument of medieval Bukhara - the Bolo-Hauz Ensemble. It is a classic sample of Central Asian mosque: the winter building of 1712, summer aivan of the early 20th century with ornamented ceiling and wooden columns, small minaret constructed in 1917 by usto Shirin and small basin. The brightest feature of mosque is decor of aivan which columns are made from two trunks each and have stalactite capitals.
4Balyand mosqueBalyand ("High") Mosque is a small mosque in the rich Bukhara quarter. Its age is more than 500 years. G-shaped column aivan surrounds rectangular winter part of mosque. It served a summer mosque. Mihrab and wall panels are faced with mosaics, and walls have poiychromic painting with gilding. Vegetative ornament and inscriptions in Sulth dominate. Wooden columns with stalactite capitals on marble bases and ceiling of avian were done in the 19th century. The ceiling of mosque is unique: it is made from planks, decorated with geometrical ornament and small wooden cupolas.
5Chashma AyubChashma-Ayub belongs to the esteemed "places of trace" ("kadamjoi") left by saints. Legends say that the bible prophet Job (Ayub) once visited this place. A blow of his staff created a well ("chash-ma"). Its water remains pure to this day, and is considered to have healing powers. According to legend, a holy structure already existed here in the 12th century. The inscription on the portal states that today's structure was built by Amir Temur. Characteristic of Chashma-Ayub is a conical dome, typical of Khorezm architecture in the 13th and 14th centuries. Most likely, Khorezm masters invited by Temur were the builders of Chashma-Ayub.
6Chor-Minor"Chor-minor" ("Four minarets") is a name of unusual Madrassah of Caliph Niyazkul, built in Madrassah has a courtyard with one-storied hudjras, column aivan of summer mosque and reservoir faced with stones. Original is the entrance - four-arch dome structure with four corner towers under blue domes. Three towers were used as utility rooms. The fourth has a stair going to the second floor into the dome hall of library.
7Toki-Zargaron, Toki-Sarrafon, Toki-Tilpak-Furushon - shopping mall in Bukhara Historical monuments of BukharaMedieval Bukhara was a big business city receiving merchants from Central Asia, Iran and India, Russia and China. The trading status of Bukhara influenced its planning and architecture. Central streets played a roleof markets, each of which specialized in some products. So, domed and multi-arched buildings were constructed on the squares and crossroads to make sale more comfortable. They were named "tok"-arch, dome. Three such structures survive to this day. These are Toki-Zargaron (dome of jewelers), Toki-Sarrafon (dome of moneychangers) and Toki-Tilpak-Furushon (dome of headwear sellers). These domes-"Toks" of the 15th-16th centuries blocked crossroads. They directed traffic, unloading arterial road and organizing trade. Shops and workshops were located inside on perimeter. Architecturally and functionally Tim of Abdullakhan belongs to "Toks". This is large multi-dome mall for silk sale. In the center of Tim there is a big area for sale. Dome gallery with fifty six shops is going on its perimeter.
9Gaukushan ensembleThe square with a stone pool in the center is located to the west from Toki-Sarrafon at the edge of dwelling quarters of the old city. There are two small madrassah and architectural ensemble of Gaukushan related to the Shaybanid buildings of the 16th century. This one-storied complex includes mosque, low minaret imitating Kalyan and madrassah with dome hudjras.
10Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa Palace (late 19th c. - early 20th cc.) Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa Palace was a country residence of Bukhara amirs. It had been under construction for two decades at the end of the 19th - early 20th centuries. Construction works at the old palace started at amir Abdullahad-khan (died in 1910). He sent Bukhara masters to Petersburg and Yalta to study Russian architecture. Using Russian experience, local architects with usto Khodja Hafiz at the head built a rich building that had combined local Bukhara and European traditions. Its throne hall for royal receptions made a core of the palace.
11The palace complex of Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa was finished at amir Alim-khan The palace complex of Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa was finished at amir Alim-khan. It included a grand entrance arch, courtyard with galleries, main building of European style before the basin and house for amir's harem in the garden. Carving on stucco with mirror background in "White Hall" that was done by Bukhara masters headed by usto Shirin Muradov and paintings in the reception room done under usto Hasan-Djan's direction are recognized true masterpieces. After revolution of 1920, Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa was used for sessions of supreme state body of Bukhara National Republic ( ) - all-Bukhara Kurultai. Mausoleum of Saifetdin Boharziy (late 13th-14th cc.)Sheikh Saifeddin Boharzi (died in 1261) was a pupil of outstanding Khorezm Sufi Nadjm ad-Din Qubro (died in 1220). He chose Bukhara for preaching where founded famous "qubraviyyah" khanaka. Sheikh Boharzi converted Golden Horde's khan Berke into Islam. In the middle of the 13th century he headed Bukhara madrassah, established by Ma'sud-beg, Mongolian minister and Muslim. Sheikh was buried in Fatkhabad.The mausoleum above his tomb arose at the end of the 13th century. Dome building of khanaka with portal was buiit in the 14th century. Khanaka had been operating till the end of 18th century. Mausoleum of Buyan Kuli khan (late 14th c., 15th or 16th c.)
14Lyabi-Hauz (lit. "shore of pool") is very popular among travelers Lyabi-Hauz (lit. "shore of pool") is very popular among travelers. It is the largest artificial reservoir of medieval Bukhara. It was installed around 1620 between khanaka and madrassah, constructed by the order of khan's vizier Nadir Divan-beghi. The two new buildings and Kukeldash Madrassah had formed a perfect architectural ensemble with reservoir in the middle. The pool is of 42 m in length, 36 m in width and about 5 m in depth. Lyabi-Hauz has stone steps by which Bukhara watermen went down to take water.
15Khanaka and madrassah of Nadir Divan-Beghi (1620) Khanaka was built first of Lyabi-Hauz ensemble. It was a place for staying and meditations of Sufis. This is a massive rectangular structure with cruciform hall under dome and hudjras in corners. The pool was built later. Nadir Divan-Beghi constructed caravanserai on its other side. At the opening of caravanserai, Imamkuli-khan ( ) complimented his minister on construction of the building "for the glory of Allah" by advice of Sufi sheikhs. So, Nadir Divan-Beghi had to convert it into madrassah. Flying phoenixes decorate the reconstructed portal. <>
16Kalyan MinaretKalyan Minaret (Great Minaret) is the main symboi of sacred Bukhara. The minaret was used not only to call Muslims to prayer, but symbolized the authority and power of its spiritual leaders. The central ensemble of Bukhara - Poi-Kalyan - literally "Beneath the Great" grew up around the minaret. The Kalyan Minaret is a round tower 9 m in diameter at its base, tapering to 6m at the top. It is possible to ascend the minaret from the roof of the cathedral mosque through a passage. Inside the tower is a spiral staircase having 104 steps. Total height of the minaret is 45.6m. The inscription on the cornice announces the date of its construction, 1127, and the name of its architect - Bako.
17Kalyan Mosque (early 16thc.) Today's Kalyan Mosque was built at the beginning of the 16th century, at the first Shaybanids. Since that time, except for Soviet time, it has operated as cathedral mosque of Bukhara. The mosque replaced the old Qarakhanid cathedral mosque of the 12th century, which was built simultaneously with Kalyan Minaret. This Shay-banid mosque is comparable witn Temuricl cathedral mosques in Samarkand and Herat. It is behind Bibi-Khanym Mosque in Samarkand in number of structures, but, its area of 130 x 80 m surpasses the last one. Kalyan Mosque is traditionally rectangular in layout and has four aivans. Aivan at the entrance has external portal fronting the Poi-Kalyan Square and internal portal overlooking the courtyard. Arched galleries with 288 domes go on perimeter of the court yard. They are based on 208 columns. The octahedral stand used as lectern is located on the central axis beside the internal portal. Mosaics and glazed bricks make colored decoration of facades
18Miri-Arab Madrassah (16thc.) Active Miri-Arab Madrassah is located opposite to Kaiyan Mosque. This is one of the most esteemed spiritual Islamic universities on the post-Soviet territory. It was constructed at the Shaybanids in the 16th century in account of trophies the nephew of Shaybani-khan, Ubaidallah-khan (died in 1539) took. Khan gave them to his teacher and head of Bukhara Muslims Miri-Arab ("Prince of Arabs"). The last came from Yemen and was a pupil of Khodja Akhrar. Madrassah has traditional layout-two floors of hudjras surround four-aivan courtyard. Classrooms occupy three corners of the building. The fourth belongs to necropolis of Ubaidallah-khan and Miri-Arab. The khan's tomb with wooden gravestone in the Yemen style is located at the foot of Sheikh Miri-Arab's tomb. The portal in the middle of the facade has semi-octahedral arch. Mosque and gurkhana with domes on high cylindrical drums are behind two-storied loggias of the facade. The external decor is formed by carved mosaics of vegetative ornaments and Sulth scripts.
19EXERCISESI. Translate the following sentences into your native tongue.1. Today's Kalyan Mosque was built at the beginning of the 16th century, at the first Shaybanids. Since that time, except for Soviet time, it has operated as cathedral mosque of Bukhara. 2. The Kalyan Minaret is a round tower 9 m in diameter at its base, tapering to 6m at the top. It is possible to ascend the minaret from the roof of the cathedral mosque through a passage.
203. The square with a stone pool in the center is located to the west from Toki-Sarrafon at the edge of dwelling quarters of the old city.4. Dome building of khanaka with portal was buiit in the 14th century.5. He chose Bukhara for preaching where founded famous "qubraviyyah" khanaka.6. The pool is of 42 m in length, 36 m in width and about 5 m in depth. Lyabi-Hauz has stone steps by which Bukhara watermen went down to take water.
21II. Put in the appropriate pronouns. 1. … the opening … caravanserai, Imamkuli-khan ( ) complimented his minister … construction … the building “… the glory … Allah" … advice … Sufi sheikhs.2. The two new buildings and Kukeldash Madrassah had formed a perfect architectural ensemble … reservoir … the middle.
223. They are based … 208 columns. 4. The mosque replaced the old Qarakhanid cathedral mosque … the 12th century, which was built simultaneously … Kalyan Minaret.
23III. Put in the suitable articles where necessary. 1. Its throne hall for royal receptions made … core of … palace. 2. Balyand ("High") Mosque is … small mosque in … rich Bukhara quarter. Its age is more than … 500 years.3. … brightest feature of mosque is … decor of aivan which columns are made from two trunks each and have stalactite capitals.
244. In … past Registan Square was occupied by numerous … beautiful buildings. 5. … massive gates were reinforced with two towers connected by … gallery above.6. Bukhara citadel of Ark obtained its modern appearance in … period of … Manghit dynasty ( ).
25IV. PARAPHRASE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. 1. Classrooms occupy three corners of the building.2. Construction works at the old palace started at amir Abdullahad-khan (died in 1910).3. This one-storied complex includes mosque, low minaret imitating Kalyan and madrassah with dome hudjras.
264. After revolution of 1920, Sitorai-Mohi-Hosa was used for sessions of supreme state body of Bukhara National Republic ( ) - all-Bukhara Kurultai.5. The two new buildings and Kukeldash Madrassah had formed a perfect architectural ensemble with reservoir in the middle.6. The mosque replaced the old Qarakhanid cathedral mosque of the 12th century, which was built simultaneously with Kalyan Minaret.
27TESTS 1. Whom the creation of Bukhara connected with? A) Afrasiyob B) SiyavushC) Amir TemurD) Doro I2. When did we celebrate the 2500 anniversary of Bukhara?A) 1996B) 1998C) 1997D) 20013. What does Chashmai Ayub mean?A) the palace of kingB) the holy placeC) the spring of AyubD) the eyes of Ayub
284. Where is Miri-Arab Madrassah located? A) near the Labi HauzB) at Somonids’ parkC) beside ArkD) opposite to Kalyan Mosque5. Who chose Bukhara for preaching where founded famous "qubraviyyah" khanaka?A) Sheikh Saifeddin BoharziB) Nadjm ad-Din QubroC) SamonidD) Amir Temur6. What building is the main symbol of sacred Bukhara?A) ArkB) Sitorai Mohi KhosaC) Kalyan MinaretD) Labi Hauz
297. What does the word Miri-Arab mean? A) prince of ArabsB) captain of ArabsC) star of ArabsD) city of Arabs8. How long is the Kalyan Minaret in diameter?A)19 mB) 10 mC) 15 mD) 9 m
309. How many classrooms are there in Miri-Arab? D) 1010. What does Lyabi-Hauz mean?A) shore of poolB) top of poolC) shore of seaD) mouth of animal