Presentation on theme: "Lifting Hazards and Some Ideas on How to Reduce Your Risk of Lifting Injury Lotsa pounds."— Presentation transcript:
1 Lifting Hazards and Some Ideas on How to Reduce Your Risk of Lifting Injury Lotsa pounds
2 By the end of this slideshow you will be able to: Identify the types of lifting that may cause injuriesReview ergonomics principles used in reducing lifting hazards and preventing injuriesContact L&I resources for assistances and phone numbers for professional in your region who can teach a lifting workshop for you are in the resource slides at the end of this slide show.
3 Statistics on Lifting Injuries There are 50,000 WMSDs in Washington every year.How many of them are due to lifting?Source: SHARP technical report No17,000! (34%)Source of data: SHARP, analysis is of State Fund claims only.This means that about 1/3 of WMSDs are attributed to lifting. That makes it one of the largest single sources of injury in Washington workplaces.
4 Lifting Injuries Aren’t Just Back Injuries Lifting results in:30% of Shoulder WMSDs22% of Elbow WMSDs43% of Back WMSDsAsk: “What other parts of the body do you think could get injured when lifting?”As you click through this slide the percentage of injuries by body part will appear.Talk about how hands and wrists can get injured from the grasping part of lifting. Show participants how the muscles in the forearm are the ones that are used for grasping, and that they attach at the elbow, which is how that joint can get injured.The shoulder gets injured because that’s where the arms attach to the torso, so any load lifted at the hands is supported by the shoulders as well. This joint is especially at risk of injury from lifts done while reaching above the shoulder or away from the body.Due to limitations of the data, these figures don’t include injuries to the hips, knees, ankles, etc., although other studies have shown that these parts of the body can also be injured while lifting.Source of data: SHARP, analysis of State Fund claims.13% of Hand/Wrist WMSDsSource: SHARP technical report No
5 Lifting Injuries Aren’t Just Due to Aging “Overexertion in lifting a heavy object is the most frequent single type of injury for those under 18 resulting in lost work-time.”Source: American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE, 2003)This is a quote from a 2003 publication by the ASSE on safety and health for young workers.
6 Pay special attention to… Heavy liftingFrequent liftingScientific research shows an increase in injuries at certain levels of exposure to heavy, frequent and awkward lifting. The next few slides show examples of these three types of lifting.Emphasize that, as they look at the example tasks, they need to keep in mind that they may not need to make changes to those jobs. This is just the pre-screening part of the process, where they decide if a job may have a potential problem.Awkward lifting
7 Heavy LiftingThe job is adding bags of dry ingredients to a hopper in a manufacturing plant. The class will be analyzing this job later.This job is adding bags of dry ingredients to a hopper in a manufacturing plant.
8 Frequent LiftingThis job is palletizing totes of small parts in a warehouse. The class will also analyze this job later.This job is palletizing totes of small parts in a warehouse.
9 Awkward Lifting Above the shoulders Below the knees At arms’ length This job is lifting 50-pound bags of wet fiberglass in a manufacturing plant. They’ll also get to analyze this job further.This job is lifting 50-pound bags of wet fiberglass in a manufacturing plant
10 Analysis tools WISHA Lifting Calculator Other tools: ACGIH Lifting TLV NIOSH Lifting EquationDepartment of Energy’s “ErgoEaser”Describe the options available for analyzing lifting jobs:The Lifting Calculator was developed by L&I, and is what the class will practice job analysis with, but it isn’t the only option they have for analyzing lifting jobs.The NIOSH Lifting Equation (1991) is one of the most commonly used tools for analyzing lifting jobs. In fact, the Lifting Calculator is based on it. The NIOSH equation requires more precision than the Lifting Calculator, and is a little more complicated to use.The ErgoEaser program is a free download from the Department of Energy’s web site. It’s based on the NIOSH Lifting Equation, but is meant to be a more ‘user-friendly’ version.The ISO standard is the most recent. Part 1 of the standard covers Lifting and Carrying tasks. It has a five-step process for determining if lifting and carrying tasks create hazards, using criteria similar to the NIOSH Lifting Equation.Most of these analysis tools are based on the criteria that NIOSH used to revise their Lifting Equation in They looked at studies on biomechanics, physiology and psychophysiology, as well as epidemiology and combined the results of these studies to set limits on lifting that are designed to protect 90% of the workforce from injury.Links to these tools are in the appendix at the end of this slide show
11 Principles for reducing heavy lifting Reduce the weightIncrease the weightUse mechanical assistanceSlide instead of liftTeam liftingList of principles to reduce heavy lifting. Each of the following slides will illustrate these principles. To involve the audience, you can ask them to suggest ways that they might solve the problem before showing the solution examples.
12 Reducing heavy lifting Reduce the weight of the load(plastic pallets)This example shows using lightweight plastic pallets, which weigh anywhere from 13 to 30 pounds for a standard 40” x 48” unit (the one in the picture is about 20 pounds). The traditional wooden 40” x 48” pallets weigh approximately 60 pounds.Costs: about $30 more per unit compared with wooden palletsSavings: Reduced shipping costs (empty pallets are nestable so more can be shipped back in one trailer)Reduced pallet repair and replacement costs (plastic is easier to clean when used in food processing)Fewer splinter/loose nail injuriesExample of use by an East Coast grocery store chain:Stop & Shop Supermarkets switched to lightweight plastic pallets instead of conventional wooden ones. The difference in weight is impressive – 20 pounds for plastic pallets rather than 60 to 70 pounds for wooden ones. Management justified the switch on the basis of reducing workers compensation costs.According to Stop & Shop, not only were their employees handling less weight, but there were impressive savings in other areas – splinter and puncture wounds decreased as did pallet repair costs. The decision paid off and is working very well for their company. Lewis, D “Grocery Industry Grapples With Back Injuries.” Safety + Health. August.
13 Reducing heavy lifting Increase the weight of the load(make it so heavy no one would try to lift it)Ask: Why would you want to increase the weight of the load to reduce the hazard? This is actually the solution that the company chose for the analysis job.The picture shows ingredients in a bulk bag. Point out that it weighs 2,000 pounds, so obviously no one would ever think of lifting it by hand.Click again to show the video of the bulk loading system. The costs will come in once the video is done playing.Cost of the bulk loading system - $150,000.Benefits:Reduced raw materials cost when buying in bulk (10’s of thousands of dollars per year)Reduced labor costs (less time required to load one big bag instead of 20, 100-pounders)Greatly reduced risk of injuryThe company states that the system paid for itself within a few years, not even factoring in the reduced injury costs.
14 Reducing heavy lifting Use mechanical assistanceThis example shows a mobile pneumatic conveyor that can be used to move powdered and granular materials from any type of container (bags, barrels, bins, totes, etc.) to a hopper or other part of a mixing system. The discharge (funnel shaped silver part at the top) is height adjustable.
15 Reducing heavy lifting Slide instead of liftThis example is moving heavy duty batteries from one pallet to another when picking an order.This example is moving heavy duty batteries from one pallet to another when picking an order. Large truck and marine batteries can weigh up to 110 pounds (this one weighs about 75 pounds). By taking the time to set the order pallet to the same height as the storage pallet, the battery can be slid rather than lifted.Cost is negligible, just the extra couple of minutes to make the height adjustment. This extra time is not required for every item picked to fill an order, just the heavier ones.Large truck and marine batteries can weigh up to 110 pounds (this one weighs about 75 pounds). By taking the time to set the order pallet to the same height as the storage pallet, the battery can be slid rather than lifted.
16 Reducing heavy lifting Team liftingTeam lifting works better on larger objects, such as the wallboard shown here. With the smaller bags in the analysis job, it would be difficult to coordinate a lift with two people.There is a labor cost involved with team lifting, although in some jobs there is always another person around out of necessity.For the lifting analysis, divide the weight lifted in half when two employees lift together. The risk isn’t always half that of lifting alone, though. It can be difficult to coordinate lifting between two people, especially when maneuvering around objects or going up or down stairs. This is why it’s not a preferred solution.Team lifting works better on larger objects, such as the wallboard shown here.There is a labor cost involved with team lifting, although in some jobs there is always another person around out of necessity.
17 Principles for reducing frequent lifting Use mechanical assistanceAvoid unnecessary liftingUse mobile storageList of principles to reduce frequent lifting (reducing duration of lifting will also be discussed later)
18 Reducing frequent lifting Use mechanical assistanceThe example shown is palletizing using a vacuum lift at a paper mill that produces bundles of grocery bags. The vacuum lift costs around $10,000, but in this case it increases productivity by allowing one employee to palletize on more than one line at a time without getting fatigued. It also allows rotation of all employees through this job, since physical capacity isn’t a limiting factor.The example shown is palletizing using a vacuum lift, from a paper mill that produces bundles of grocery bags. There are two solution photos. The first shows lifting from the conveyor at the end of the packaging line. Click to bring in the next picture, which shows palletizing.The vacuum lift costs around $10,000, but in this case it increases productivity by allowing one employee to palletize on more than one line at a time without getting fatigued. It also allows them to rotate all employees through this job, since physical capacity isn’t a limiting factor.Each of the bundles of grocery bags weighs about 40 pounds, and when the line is running they come one after another.
19 Reducing frequent lifting Use mobile storageObviously this solution doesn’t apply to the job analyzed, but there are cases where parts are lifted multiple times during manufacturing, and this can help to reduce frequent lifting in those situations.The example is a mobile parts rack from a gas and wood stove manufacturer (Aladdin Hearth Products demonstration project). The metal parts can be fairly heavy (20 to 52 pounds) and go through several finishing and inspection steps before final assembly. By placing them on mobile racks, the parts can be moved from process to process with minimal lifting.These racks were assembled in house using a product called Creform, made by Textube. The kits have plastic coated steel pipes, connectors, hangers, casters, etc., to custom build material handling aids. Cost to put together one of these racks is $250.The example is a mobile parts rack from a gas and wood stove manufacturer. The metal parts can be fairly heavy (20 to 52 pounds). They go through several finishing and inspection steps before final assembly. By placing them on mobile racks, the parts can be moved from process to process with minimal lifting.
20 Principles for reducing duration of lifting Rotate to other jobsUse mechanical assistanceList of principles to reduce duration of lifting
21 Reducing duration of lifting Rotating workers to other jobs (also job enlargement, adding a variety of tasks to a job) can be one of the easier solutions to implement, although sometimes some additional training is required (especially for things like operating a forklift). To be effective, the rotation should be to work that allows for recovery from lifting. The best type of recovery is light activity, rather than completely sedentary, although some opportunities to sit down are good.This rotation shows going from lifting to operating a forklift to doing paperwork, and then back to lifting. It probably wouldn’t be a good idea to go straight from operating a forklift to lifting, since the whole body vibration associated with forklift driving can cause muscle tightness and fatigue. Providing a period of paperwork in between allows for some additional recovery.Costs:Additional trainingSlightly reduced productivity while learning new tasksBenefits:Reduced fatigueAbility to fill in for co-workersMore job variety means less boredom, higher job satisfactionA link to a guide to job rotation can be found in the appendix at the end of this slide showRotate to non-lifting tasks
22 Principles for reducing awkward lifting - reaching - Remove obstaclesSlide closerReduce shelf depthReduce package sizeUse mechanical assistanceTeam liftingList of principles to reduce awkward lifting – reachingAlong with object weight, lifting frequency and duration, the distance between the hands and the low back when lifting is one of the main factors in determining whether a lift is a hazard or not. The longer the reach required to lift an object, the more of a load it places on the low back and the greater the risk of injury.Along with object weight, lifting frequency and duration, the distance between the hands and the low back when lifting is one of the main factors in determining whether a lift is a hazard or not. The longer the reach required to lift an object, the more of a load it places on the low back and the greater the risk of injury.
23 Reducing awkward lifting - reaching - Remove obstaclesThis shows lifting in and out of a tote with the side cut out. This can reduce the reach in many cases, although there will still be some awkward lifting. It’s one of the cheapest solutions, since it just requires the time to cut out the side of the tote. Bins with flip-down sides are also available, so that as they fill up the sides can be flipped-up into place to hold the boxes in place.
24 Reducing awkward lifting - reaching - Slide objects closerThis example shows an order picking using an inexpensive (~$15), metal hook, made in-house, to pull a box close to the edge of the shelf before lifting it. This works well for lighter items. Heavier items would need to be stored lower and slid closer using both hands.
25 Reducing awkward lifting - reaching - While it’s possible to simply reduce the depth of shelves, you also give up some storage space this way, or you have to buy a lot of narrow shelving units.Gravity flow racks can be a good solution, since they allow you to store a lot of boxes on a single deep rack. They use a variety of types of rollers that allow boxes to roll forward as the front box is taken away.Reduce shelf depthWhile it’s possible to simply reduce the depth of shelves (you could even put empty boxes in the back to keep the full ones near the front) you also give up some storage space this way, or you have to buy a lot of narrow shelving units.Gravity flow racks can be a good solution, since they allow you to store a lot of boxes on a single deep rack. They use a variety of types of rollers that allow boxes to roll forward as the front box is taken away. They need to be carefully designed so that the boxes towards the back aren’t pressing too heavily on the box in front, making it difficult to take out.The examples shown are designed to fit into existing standard racks, so new gravity flow racks won’t need to be purchased and installed. The costs of these systems range from about $60 per lane to a little over $200 per lane depending on depth and width of lanes.The examples shown are designed to fit into existing standard racks, so new gravity flow racks won’t need to be purchased and installed. The costs of these systems range from about $60 per lane to a little over $200 per lane depending on depth and width of lanes.
26 Reducing awkward lifting - reaching - Reduce package sizeThe drawings show the difference between lifting a large box with many items in it versus lifting a smaller box with fewer items in it. Not only will this reduce the weight, but it will also reduce the reach necessary to pick up the box. Costs to implement this idea will vary. If you’re the customer, you can request smaller packaging from the supplier and probably pay a little more per item due to their increased packaging costs.
27 Reducing awkward lifting - reaching - Use mechanical assistanceThis is an electric hoist on a trolley attached to a boom. It has a 250-pound capacity, so they can actually move two bags at a time, which helps with productivity. The cost for the light duty hoist, trolley, I-beam and jib mounting is about $1,000.
28 Reducing awkward lifting - reaching - Team liftingTeam lifting can help to reduce the reach required to pick up a large object, since workers no longer need to place their hands at the object’s center of gravity (balance point). Remember, it’s not as effective as a piece of lifting equipment and an employee who is trained in how to use it properly.
29 Principles for reducing awkward lifting - bending - Use mechanical assistance to raise the loadAdd handlesArrange storageAvoid unnecessary liftingList of principles to reduce awkward lifting – bending.
30 Reducing awkward lifting - bending - Use mechanical assistance to raise the loadThis is a relatively common device used in industry – a scissor-lift cart. The height of the cart is adjusted hydraulically, in this case with a foot pedal, although powered adjustment mechanisms are also available. These carts cost about $1500.Workers can bring objects up to a better height for lifting, although the best use is to place the cart at the same height as the shelf or table the object is being transferred to or from, and then slide it over rather than lifting. Carts with rollers or roller balls are available to help make the sliding transfer easier.
31 Reducing awkward lifting - bending - Add handlesThis shows the difference in lifting posture between picking up a box from the bottom, and picking it up using handles near the top of the box. In this case, this product is shipped in a box with pre-cut handles, so it doesn’t cost anything to use them. There’s still some bending, but the box is now lifted from above the knees, rather than below them.There are a couple of other good ideas in this photo as well. The box has been stacked on an empty pallet to raise it up a little (sometimes even raising something just 6” can make a difference in posture). The bottom pallet has also been designed with some toe space below the load deck to allow workers to get closer to the objects they’re lifting.
32 Reducing awkward lifting - bending - Rearrange storageThe cost of this solution will vary depending on how many items are stored and how much rearranging needs to be done to get them at a good height. This example assumes 30 hours of work (changing rack heights, using forklifts to move pallets) at $20 per hour for a total cost of $600.The example shown is a from a lumberyard, where they took stock of all heavy items and rearranged their storage to place those items on shelves between knee and shoulder level. The higher items can often be slid down to waist level before lifting them.
33 Reducing awkward lifting - bending - Avoid unnecessary liftingTruck and SUV wheels (tire + rim) can weigh over 70 pounds, and would be a hazard if lifted from the floor.The cost of a set of tire hangers is $445.This is an example of a commercial product designed to allow mechanics to hang wheels off the sides of the lift when working on brakes, hubs, etc. This places the wheels at a better height for lifting, instead of dropping the wheels to the ground. The hanger folds flat against the lift when not in use.
34 Principles for reducing awkward lifting – reaching above shoulders - Arrange storageUse mechanical assistanceUse a rolling stair or “safety ladder”List of principles to reduce awkward lifting – reaching above the shoulders
35 Reducing awkward lifting – reaching above shoulders - Arrange storageThis shows arranging storage so that larger, heavier and more frequently used boxes are between knee and shoulder height. In this case, the height of the shelf for heavy boxes is just above the height of the cart, so they can be slid instead of lifted. This type of ‘downhill’ transfer is the easiest, although if boxes need to go back and forth from the shelf to the cart, they would want to set them as close to the same level as possible.Utility carts like this one are relatively inexpensive, usually less than $120.This shows arranging storage so that larger, heavier and more frequently used boxes are between knee and shoulder height. In this case, the height of the shelf for heavy boxes is just above the height of the cart, so they can be slid instead of lifted.
36 Reducing awkward lifting – reaching above shoulders - Use mechanical assistanceThe device shown is a stacker, which is like a hand truck with a hand-cranked winch to move the platform up and down so that loads can be mechanically raised to the height they are shelved or removed from shelves. Stackers are available with lift heights up to 12 feet. A model with a foot brake to keep it from moving when sliding loads is around $780.
37 Reducing awkward lifting – reaching above shoulders - Use mechanical assistanceThis example shows using a carton clamp on a forklift to split/combine two halves of a stack of bins, rather than un-stacking/stacking the top layers over shoulder height.
38 Reducing awkward lifting – reaching above shoulders - Use a rolling stairThis is a simple solution, although safety is a concern when using anything like this. WISHA rules don’t allow going up and down ladders while carrying loads, so a rolling stair or “safety ladder” (50 degree slope or less) is required, or in this case a place to put the load down before going up or down the steps. The example is a cart with a stair attached (or a stair with a cart attached) and costs less than $400. The advantage is that the steps are always there, so no need to find a ladder, and they can set the load down as they go up and down the stairs.
39 Principles for reducing awkward lifting – twisting - Use conveyorsProvide more spaceArrange storageList of principles to reduce awkward lifting - twisting
40 Reducing awkward lifting – twisting - Use conveyorsConveyors such as this one are especially useful when changing directions, to help avoid twisting. This picture shows a gravity conveyor used to unload trucks in a shipping department. It allows the receiver to bring the boxes over to the computer to scan in the information and inventory the contents. The boxes can then be slid directly onto carts to be put away. Lifting only needs to occur twice, once to take the box from the truck and place it on the conveyor, and once to put the box away. This conveyor set up (gravity rollers) costs about $600
41 Reducing awkward lifting – twisting - Re-arrange storageThis example shows raising the height of the upper racks to provide more room to get at products on the lower racks. This may involve installing additional racks to make up for the loss in storage space. Otherwise, if the facility can get by with the racks they currently have, then it’s just labor costs to rearrange the storage.
42 How to find ideas Resources: Your employees Your suppliers Your industry associationIndustry-specific equipment catalogsProduct vendorsInternet searchesThese are some tips on where to find more ideas for ways to fix lifting hazards:Employees are one of the best sources of ideas for fixing jobs, since they’re the experts at what they do. They may already have thought of ideas for making things better. Also, if they’re involved in coming up with solutions, they’re more likely to use them.Other sources are suppliers (remember the bags of fiberglass?), industry associations, equipment catalogs that you may already have, suppliers of the materials and equipment that you buy, and the Internet.Be careful when looking for equipment. Just because something is called “ergonomic” doesn’t necessarily mean it will work for your situation.
43 Ergonomics Ideas Bank http://www.ergoideas.Lni.wa.gov There are hundreds of ideas for reducing lifting available in the Ergonomics Ideas Bank. These ideas have been reviewed by a team of ergonomists, so the ideas have some credibility.The picture is linked to the Ideas Bank, so if you’re hooked up to the network, you can do a live demo with the class.
44 Lifting techniques training Training all by itself, without making changes to the workplace, is often not effective in preventing injuries. (see reference below) Often employees are taught “proper lifting techniques” and then sent out to work under conditions that don’t allow them to use these techniques.Training is an important part of implementing changes, though. Showing employees how to use new equipment and explaining why it’s important to use it properly in order to prevent injuries helps to make sure the equipment gets used.The following study provides evidence of the lack of effectiveness of training alone:Daltroy, L.H., et al. (1997). A controlled trial of an educational program to prevent low back injuries. The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 337, No. 5, pgsTeaching lifting techniques to employeesGiving training alone is not effectiveMaking changes to jobs and equipment is betterMaking changes along with training is most effectiveTraining all by itself, without making changes to the workplace, is often not effective in preventing injuries. (see reference below) Often employees are taught “proper lifting techniques” and then sent out to work under conditions that don’t allow them to use these techniques.Training is an important part of implementing changes, though. Showing employees how to use new equipment and explaining why it’s important to use it properly in order to prevent injuries helps to make sure the equipment gets used.The following study provides evidence of the lack of effectiveness of training alone:Daltroy, L.H., et al. (1997). A controlled trial of an educational program to prevent low back injuries. The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 337, No. 5, pgsThis was a large study involving around 4,000 postal workers. Half received “back school” type training including training on safe lifting and proper postures, while the other half had no training (control group). They followed the workers over a 5-year period, during which the training group had refresher training. When comparing the two groups, they found that the training made no difference in the rate of injury, cost of injury, lost work time, or recurrence of injuries.
45 Lifting techniques training Job-specific, on-site, hands-on training is more effective than classroomHave employees demonstrate proper lifting techniques before “graduating”Being trained where they work, using the objects they typically lift and the equipment they use on the job helps employees to relate to what they’re being taught, rather than showing them a generic lifting video.Make sure that employees have learned what you’re trying to teach them by having each one of them demonstrate the lifting techniques properly before leaving the class. Follow-up with them to make sure they are able to use the techniques on the job.Being trained where they work, using the objects they typically lift and the equipment they use on the job helps employees to relate to what they’re being taught, rather than showing them a generic lifting video. Make sure that employees have learned what you’re trying to teach them by having each one of them demonstrate the lifting techniques properly before leaving the class. Follow-up with them to make sure they are able to use the techniques on the job.
46 Your Regional Resources Region Claudia Kelley (425)Region Maria Kelley (206)Region Francine Florance (253)Region Dana Wilcox (360)Region Paula Hemp (509)Region Lana Pigeon (509)
47 Other great resources!If you have a question about any aspect of ergonomics as it relates to your business, you can the following address and receive an answer within two working days (generally sooner).Or call(ask for an ergonomist)Look here for a schedule of workshops in your region
48 Appendix - Links Lifting Calculators Job Rotation NIOSH Lifting Equation calculatorNIOSH Lifting Equation Applications ManualACGIH ® TLV ® for BackWISHA Lifting EquationWISHA Lifting Equation Paper versionDepartment of Energy’s “ErgoEaser”Job RotationWISHA Ergonomics Ideas BankThe links here take you to the information you need to use the two calculators listed here. Showing you how to use these tools is beyond the scope of this class.
49 Thank you for participating! You’re done!Thank you for participating!