2Outline of the Lecture Dynamic modeling Sequence diagramsState diagramsUsing dynamic modeling for the design of user interfacesAnalysis exampleRequirements analysis document templateRequirements analysis model validation
3How do you find classes?In previous lectures we have already established the following sourcesApplication domain analysis: Talk to client to identify abstractionsApplication of general world knowledge and intuitionScenariosNatural language formulation of a concrete usage of the systemUse CasesNatural language formulation of the functions of the systemTextual analysis of problem statement (Abbott)Today we show how identify classes from dynamic modelsActions and activities in state chart diagrams are candidates for public operations in classesActivity lines in sequence diagrams are also candidates for objectsGoal: Come up with> a domain model (domain specific objects)> a taxonomy (class hierarchy)
4Dynamic Modeling with UML Diagrams for dynamic modelingInteraction diagrams describe the dynamic behavior between objectsStatecharts describe the dynamic behavior of a single objectInteraction diagramsSequence Diagram:Dynamic behavior of a set of objects arranged in time sequence.Good for real-time specifications and complex scenariosCollaboration Diagram :Shows the relationship among objects. Does not show timeState Chart Diagram:A state machine that describes the response of an object of a given class to the receipt of outside stimuli (Events).Activity Diagram: A special type of statechart diagram, where all states are action states (Moore Automaton)Parts of the DAIMLER system has a rich dynamic behavior, so the dynamic model is important.Note that the dynamic model is an abstraction like the other models as well. Depending on what properties are most characteristic in a system, one of the models will be richer or more significant than others. If you have a choice to decide on a single model, which one would you use?Object Model: Database, Preventive maintenance,Dynamic Model: Communication, Notification Server, AGTS Server, Change management (Information flow!)Temporal relationships are difficult to understand. Rumbaugh thinks, that a system can be best understood by first examining its static structure, that is the structure of its objects and their relationships to each other at a single moment in time. Then we examine the changes to the objects and their relationships over time. (Note that not everybody thinks that way. Heraklit: Everything flows (requires dynamic modeling first), Jacobsen: Use cases (Functional description)Control is that aspect of a system that describes the sequences of operations that occur in response to external stimuli, without consideration of what the operations do, what the operate on or how they are implemented.The major concepts of dynamic modeling are events which represent external stimuli and states, which represent the values of objects.We will use state diagrams, which are a standard computer science concept. Question: Who does not know what a finite state automaton is?In general we assume, that FSA are covered in (Algorithms and Datastructures)Similar to the problem in object modeling, we need to avoid to clutter our state diagrams (spaghetti diagrams). We will show that states and events can be organized into generalization hierarchies that share structure and behavior.
5Dynamic Modeling Definition of dynamic model: Purpose: A collection of multiple state chart diagrams, one state chart diagram for each class with important dynamic behavior.Purpose:Detect and supply methods for the object modelHow do we do this?Start with use case or scenarioModel interaction between objects => sequence diagramModel dynamic behavior of a single object => statechart diagram
6Start with Flow of Events from Use Case Flow of events from “Dial a Number” Use case:Caller lifts receiverDial tone beginsCaller dialsPhone ringsCallee answers phoneRinging stops....A scenario is a sequence of events that occurs during one particular execution of a system. The scope of a scenario can vary: it may include all events in the system, or it may include only those events generated by certain objects of the system.A scenario can be the historical record of executing a system or a thought experiment of exexuting a proposed system.Each event transmits information from one object to another. For example, dial tone begins transmits a signal from the phone line to the caller.
7What is an Event? Something that happens at a point in time Relation of events to each other:Causally related: Before, after,Causally unrelated: concurrentAn event sends information from one object to anotherEvents can be grouped in event classes with a hierarchical structure. ‘Event’ is often used in two ways:Instance of an event class: “New IETM issued on Thursday September 14 at 9:30 AM”.Event class “New IETM”, Subclass “Figure Change”Attribute of an event classIETM Update (9:30 AM, 9/14/99)Car starts at ( 4:45pm, Monroeville Mall, Parking Lot 23a)Mouse button down(button#, tablet-location)
8Sequence DiagramFrom the flow of events in the use case or scenario proceed to the sequence diagramA sequence diagram is a graphical description of objects participating in a use case or scenario using a DAG (direct acyclic graph) notationRelation to object identification:Objects/classes have already been identified during object modelingObjects are identified as a result of dynamic modelingHeuristic:A event always has a sender and a receiver.The representation of the event is sometimes called a messageFind them for each event => These are the objects participating in the use case
9An Example Flow of events in a “Get SeatPosition” use case : 1. Establish connection between smart card and onboard computer2. Establish connection between onboard computer and sensor for seat3. Get current seat position and store on smart cardWhich are the objects?This is an example of a use case that describes the establishment of connection between a technician onboard the train trying to talk to a maintenance expert currently located at an unknown location. The location is known by Headquarters.The Technician has to first reach headquarters to find the expert and is doing this via communication to the Wayside (Field Site) computer.
10Sequence Diagram for “Get SeatPosition” Onboard ComputerSeatSmart Card1. Establish connection between smart card and onboard computer2. Establish connection between onboard computer and sensor for seat3. Get current seat position and store on smart cardEstablish ConnectionEstablish ConnectionThe Technician informs the Wayside Computer that he/she would like to setup a connection to the Maintenance Expert (1). The Wayside Computer attempts to resolve the name of the Maintenance Expert in Pittsburgh, but that person cannot be located here (2). Thus, the Wayside Computer issues the setup connection event to the Headquarter Computer to find out where the Maintenance Expert is located (3). The Headquarter Computer is able to resolve the name of the Maintenance Expert since this person is located at AEG Headquarters (4). The setup connection is thus finally forwarded to the appropriate Maintenance Expert (5). The Maintenance Expert can reject or accept the connection. If he/she accepts the connection, then the scenario continues as follows (6). The Headquarter Computer establishes a connection to the Maintenance Expert (7). The Headquarter Computer then accepts a connection from the Way-side Computer to complete the second leg of the of the connection (8). In turn, the Wayside Com-puter establishes a connection to the Headquarter Computer (9). The Wayside Computer now accepts the connection from the Technician (10). Finally, the Technician establishes a connection to the Wayside Computer (11). The communication channel is now established from the Techni-cian to the Maintenance Expert and the two parties can exchange information (12).Accept ConnectionAccept ConnectionGet SeatPosition“500,575,300”time
11Heuristics for Sequence Diagrams Layout:1st column: Should correspond to the actor who initiated the use case2nd column: Should be a boundary object3rd column: Should be the control object that manages the rest of the use caseCreation:Control objects are created at the initiation of a use caseBoundary objects are created by control objectsAccess:Entity objects are accessed by control and boundary objects,Entity objects should never call boundary or control objects: This makes it easier to share entity objects across use cases and makes entity objects resilient against technology-induced changes in boundary objects.
12Is this a good Sequence Diagram? Smart CardOnboard ComputerSeatFirst column is not the actorIt is not clear where the boundary object isIt is not clear where the control object isEstablish ConnectionEstablish ConnectionLayout problem: The actor is missing. Who is talking to the Smartcard?(Create Driver actor who inserts Smart Card into Cardreader)Creation problem: The control object is not created by the interface object (add dashed lifeline until create() call by interface object)Access problem: The interface object accesses the control object (replace by dashed line)Accept ConnectionAccept ConnectionGet SeatPosition“500,575,300”
14Impact on ARENA’s Object Model Let’s assume, before we formulated the previous sequence diagram, ARENA’s object model contained the objectsLeague Owner, Arena, League, Tournament, Match and PlayerThe Sequence Diagram identified new ClassesTournament Boundary, Announce_Tournament_Control
17Impact on ARENA’s Object Model (ctd) The Sequence Diagram also supplied us with a lot of new eventsnewTournament(league)setName(name)setMaxPlayers(max)CommitcheckMaxTournaments()createTournamentQuestion: Who owns these events?Answer: For each object that receives an event there is a public operation in the associated class.The name of the operation is usually the name of the event.
18Example from the Sequence Diagram createTournament(name, maxp)LeagueOwner:TournamentBoundarynewTournament(league):AnnounceControl«new»setName(name)setMaxPlayers(maxp)commit()checkMaxTournament():Arena:LeaguecreateTournament is a (public)operation owned byAnnounce_Tournament_ControlcreateTournament(name, maxp)
19Tournament_ Boundary Announce_ Tournament_ Control LeagueOwnerLeague1*AttributesAttributesOperationsOperationsAttributesOperationsTournament_BoundaryTournamentAnnounce_Tournament_ControlAttributesOperationsAttributescreateTournament(name, maxp)PlayerMatch**AttributesAttributesOperationsOperations
20What else can we get out of sequence diagrams? Sequence diagrams are derived from the use cases. We therefore see the structure of the use cases.The structure of the sequence diagram helps us to determine how decentralized the system is.We distinguish two structures for sequence diagrams: Fork and Stair Diagrams (Ivar Jacobsen)
21Fork DiagramMuch of the dynamic behavior is placed in a single object, ususally the control object. It knows all the other objects and often uses them for direct questions and commands.
22Stair DiagramThe dynamic behavior is distributed. Each object delegates some responsibility to other objects. Each object knows only a few of the other objects and knows which objects can hel with a specific behavior.
23Fork or Stair? Which of these diagram types should be chosen? Object-oriented fans claim that the stair structure is betterThe more the responsibility is spread out, the betterHowever, this is not always true. Better heuristics:Decentralized control structureThe operations have a strong connectionThe operations will always be performed in the same orderCentralized control structure (better support of change)The operations can change orderNew operations can be inserted as a result of new requirements
24UML Statechart Diagram Notation Event triggerWith parametersState1State2Event1(attr) [condition]/actiondo/Activityentry /actionGuardconditionexit/actionAlso: internal transitionand deferred eventsA state is drawn as a rounded box containing a name. The state name appears in bold faceA transition is drawn as an arrow from the receiving state to the target state. Event names are written on the transition arrow, optionally followed by one or more attributes within parentheses.A condition is a Bollean function of object values, such as emission is above legal value. Conditions can be guards on transitions. A guarded transition fires only when the event occurs and the condition is true. Conditions are shown as expressions in square brackets following the event name and its parameter list.An action follows the event name and/or the condition by the slash (/) character.Events that cause an action without causing a state change are written inside the state box. Internal action and self-transition are different. When an internal action occurs, neither the entry nor exit action is executed, when a self-transition occurs, these actions are executed.Events sent to other objects are shown in dashed lines.Notation based on work by HarelAdded are a few object-oriented modificationsA UML statechart diagram can be mapped into a finite state machine
25Statechart DiagramsGraph whose nodes are states and whose directed arcs are transitions labeled by event names.We distinguish between two types of operations in statecharts:Activity: Operation that takes time to completeassociated with statesAction: Instantaneous operationassociated with eventsassociated with states (reduces drawing complexity): Entry, Exit, Internal ActionA statechart diagram relates events and states for one classAn object model with a set of objects has a set of state diagramsA state diagram relates events and states for one object.A transition is drawn fromState diagrams would be quite useless if they only describe event patterns. A behavioral description of an object must specify what the object does in response to events. This is specified in operations attached to states and transition .An activity is an operation that takes time to complete. Activities are always associated with a state. The notation do Activity1 within a state box indicates that activity A start on entry to the state and stops when complete.Sometimes it is more advantageous to associate an action with a state. When? When all the state transitions cause the same action, it is a better notational convenience to list the action only once. This reduces clutter in the state diagrams.An action is an instantaneous operation. This is of course a relative notion. What we mean by instantaneous is that the duration of the operation is insignificant when compared to the time resolution of the state diagram. It also means we do not care about the internal structure of this operation. An action is therefore associated with an event.
26State An abstraction of the attributes of a class State is the aggregation of several attributes a classBasically an equivalence class of all those attribute values and links that do no need to be distinguished as far as the control structure of the system is concernedExample: State of a bankA bank is either solvent or insolventState has durationAn object model describes the possible patterns of objects, attribute values and links that can exist in a system.A dynamic model describes the possible patterns of states, events and actions that can exist in a system.Over time, the objects stimulate each other, resulting in a series of changes to their states.An individual stimulus from one object to another is called an event.Events can be organized into classes. Events can be error conditions as well as normal occurences. Event as an object : Some events are only signals (OK), others have attributes associated with them (Unix signals: Bus error, Segment violation).Attributes are shown in parentheses after the class name. Events are important for UI, Communication and Notification. Other groups have to worry about events as well, because the interaction between the subsystems should be via the Request Broker.The response to an event depends on the state of the object receiving it. It can include a state change or sending of another event to another object and sending a event back to the sender (return result, ok, ...)The Events and states are duals of one another: An event separates 2 states and a state separates 2 events.
27Example of a StateChart Diagram coins_in(amount) / set balanceCollect Moneycoins_in(amount) / add to balanceIdlecancel / refund coins[item empty][select(item)][change<0]A good application for nested state diagrams in this example of a vending machine. Here we see the top level dynamic model of the object vending machine, which certainly has interesting dynamic behavior for the designer.Question to the students: Is the dynamic model interesting for the end user? If the end user has the choice of one of the 3 models (Object model, dynamic model and functional model), which one would they use? Answer: The functional model! If I select this particular candy bar, then that is what I want to get.Notice the activity do : dispense item. In the case, when we really have to engineer (develop) the dispenser, there is much more to it than just a activity dispense. Note, by the way, that this particular state does not have a name! The state in the upper left has a state, namely Collect Money. This is incomplete if we insist that all states have names, but it is completely natural while we do dynamic modeling. We do not necessarily immediately come up with good names for everything. We had encountered a similar problem during object modeling: In some cases, we found the class name first, in others we first find the method or methods or maybe we start with something where we only know the attribute.There is no predefined roadmap to arrive at good models, be it object, dynamic or functional models. Creativity cannot be forced into a Procustres bed, or otherwise we will end up with an empty set of boxes!do: test item and compute change[change=0][change>0]do: dispense itemdo: make change
28Nested State DiagramActivities in states are composite items denoting other lower-level state diagramsA lower-level state diagram corresponds to a sequence of lower-level states and events that are invisible in the higher-level diagram.Sets of substates in a nested state diagram denote a superstate are enclosed by a large rounded box, also called contour.Nested state diagrams are useful for two reasons:As a solution to cope with the complexity in your design:Abstraction: A state is actually more complex and leads to a finite state automaton itself. On the top level we don’t model all the complex states.Modularization: Each state diagram has up to 7+-2 states.Hierarchy: We apply the “ Consist of” association!
29Example of a Nested Statechart Diagram IdleCollect Moneycoins_in(amount) / add to balancedo: test item and compute changedo: make change[change>0][item empty][select(item)][change<0]coins_in(amount) / set balancecancel / refund coins[change=0]A good application for nested state diagrams in this example of a vending machine. Here we see the top level dynamic model of the object vending machine, which certainly has interesting dynamic behavior for the designer.Question to the students: Is the dynamic model interesting for the end user? If the end user has the choice of one of the 3 models (Object model, dynamic model and functional model), which one would they use? Answer: The functional model! If I select this particular candy bar, then that is what I want to get.Notice the activity do : dispense item. In the case, when we really have to engineer (develop) the dispenser, there is much more to it than just a activity dispense. Note, by the way, that this particular state does not have a name! The state in the upper left has a state, namely Collect Money. This is incomplete if we insist that all states have names, but it is completely natural while we do dynamic modeling. We do not necessarily immediately come up with good names for everything. We had encountered a similar problem during object modeling: In some cases, we found the class name first, in others we first find the method or methods or maybe we start with something where we only know the attribute.There is no predefined roadmap to arrive at good models, be it object, dynamic or functional models. Creativity cannot be forced into a Procustres bed, or otherwise we will end up with an empty set of boxes!Superstatedo: dispense item
30Example of a Nested Statechart Diagram [change=0]A good application for nested state diagrams in this example of a vending machine. Here we see the top level dynamic model of the object vending machine, which certainly has interesting dynamic behavior for the designer.Question to the students: Is the dynamic model interesting for the end user? If the end user has the choice of one of the 3 models (Object model, dynamic model and functional model), which one would they use? Answer: The functional model! If I select this particular candy bar, then that is what I want to get.Notice the activity do : dispense item. In the case, when we really have to engineer (develop) the dispenser, there is much more to it than just a activity dispense. Note, by the way, that this particular state does not have a name! The state in the upper left has a state, namely Collect Money. This is incomplete if we insist that all states have names, but it is completely natural while we do dynamic modeling. We do not necessarily immediately come up with good names for everything. We had encountered a similar problem during object modeling: In some cases, we found the class name first, in others we first find the method or methods or maybe we start with something where we only know the attribute.There is no predefined roadmap to arrive at good models, be it object, dynamic or functional models. Creativity cannot be forced into a Procustres bed, or otherwise we will end up with an empty set of boxes!Superstatedo: dispense item
31Example of a Nested Statechart Diagram ‘Dispense item’ asa composite activity:‘Dispense item’ asan atomic activity:do: move armto rowarm readyA good application for nested state diagrams in this example of a vending machine. Here we see the top level dynamic model of the object vending machine, which certainly has interesting dynamic behavior for the designer.Question to the students: Is the dynamic model interesting for the end user? If the end user has the choice of one of the 3 models (Object model, dynamic model and functional model), which one would they use? Answer: The functional model! If I select this particular candy bar, then that is what I want to get.Notice the activity do : dispense item. In the case, when we really have to engineer (develop) the dispenser, there is much more to it than just a activity dispense. Note, by the way, that this particular state does not have a name! The state in the upper left has a state, namely Collect Money. This is incomplete if we insist that all states have names, but it is completely natural while we do dynamic modeling. We do not necessarily immediately come up with good names for everything. We had encountered a similar problem during object modeling: In some cases, we found the class name first, in others we first find the method or methods or maybe we start with something where we only know the attribute.There is no predefined roadmap to arrive at good models, be it object, dynamic or functional models. Creativity cannot be forced into a Procustres bed, or otherwise we will end up with an empty set of boxes!do: move armto columnarm readydo: dispense itemdo: push itemoff shelf
32Expanding activity “do:dispense item” ‘Dispense item’ asan atomic activity:[change=0]do: dispense itemHere is the nested state diagram for do : dispense item.The activity dispense item is now decomposed (remember, decompostion is one of the 3 pillar stones to deal with complexity) into 3 distinct states, namelyMove arm to correct rowMove arm to correct columnPush item from the shelfAs a result of this refinement, we actually see two new objects emerging, namely row, column and shelf. And a new method, namely Push Item().This is another example, of where the dynamic model helps with the identification of objects and methods.Here are two good heuristics for dynamic modeling that I would like you to know as well:1) Any event in a state diagram is a good candidate for a method of a class.2) If the class does not yet exist to which this event should be attached as method, its existence should be postulated (and verified by the customer and/or analyst).‘Dispense item’ as a composite activity:do: move armto rowdo: push itemoff shelfdo: move armto columnarmreadyarmready
33Superstates Goal: Avoid spaghetti models Reduce the number of lines in a state diagramTransitions from other states to the superstate enter the first substate of the superstate.Transitions to other states from a superstate are inherited by all the substates (state inheritance)
34Modeling Concurrency Two types of concurrency 1. System concurrency State of overall system as the aggregation of state diagrams, one for each object. Each state diagram is executing concurrently with the others.2. Object concurrencyAn object can be partitioned into subsets of states (attributes and links) such that each of them has its own subdiagram.The state of the object consists of a set of states: one state from each subdiagram.State diagrams are divided into subdiagrams by dotted lines.Concurrency is an important aspect any application for two reasons:Maintainability: If two classes are really concurrent, that means, they are not related to each other, and they can be designed and developed completely independently from each other.Improved Performance: Concurrency also means in many cases a possible source for fast response time. If methods can be executed in parallel, and not in serial fashion, the systems response time will be better.Concurrency within a state of a single object arises when the object can be paritioned into subsets of attributes, each of which has its own subdiagram.In this case, the state of the object comprises one state from each subdiagram. Note that these subdiagrams don’t have to be independent. The same event can cause state transitions in more than one subdiagram.Examples of concurrency within an object: A dispenser machine, that simultaneously dispenses cash and ejects the card.Often concurrency within an object is discovered after the object has been identified. It might be the source for iterating on the object identification and question if there are not two separate objects in the problem that are worth modeling.
35Example of Concurrency within an Object Splitting controlSynchronizationEmittingDo: DispenseCash takenCashConcurrency might be detected within a single object. This sometimes means that our overall decomposition of the system or our initial object identification was too coarse grain.If there is concurrency, the first question an analyst should ask: What two objects are hidden in the currently modeled single objects? In many cases, uncovering these two yet unknown classes will lead to new insights in the application or result in a better taxonomy or object model.In some cases, the object is inherently not further decomposable. But even in this case, the discussion of concurrency is very important at analysis level, because it will have important ramifications during system design (mappability of the concurrent methods on two different processors due to data parallelism, for example) and implementation (choice of programming language that supports light level threads instead of heavy level processes).SettingReadyUpto resetReadyDo: EjectCardCard taken
36State Chart Diagram vs Sequence Diagram State chart diagrams help to identify:Changes to an individual object over timeSequence diagrams help to identifyThe temporal relationship of between objects over timeSequence of operations as a response to one ore more events
37Dynamic Modeling of User Interfaces Statechart diagrams can be used for the design of user interfacesAlso called Navigation PathStates: Name of screensGraphical layout of the screens associated with the states helps when presenting the dynamic model of a user interfaceActivities/actions are shown as bullets under screen nameOften only the exit action is shownState transitions: Result of exit actionButton clickMenu selectionCursor movementsGood for web-based user interface design
38Navigation Path Example Diagnostics MenuUser moves cursor to Control Panel or GraphGraphUser selects data group and type of graphControl panelUser selects functionality of sensorsSelectionUser selects data groupField siteCarSensor groupTime rangeUser selects type of graphtime linehistogrampie chartDefineUser defines a sensor eventfrom a list of eventsEnableUser can enable a sensor event from a list of sensor eventsDisableUser can disable a sensor event from a list of sensor eventsList of eventsUser selects event(s)VisualizeUser views graphUser can add data groups for being viewedList of sensor eventsUser selects sensor event(s)LinkUser makes a link (doclink)
39Practical Tips for Dynamic Modeling Construct dynamic models only for classes with significant dynamic behaviorAvoid “analysis paralysis”Consider only relevant attributesUse abstraction if necessaryLook at the granularity of the application when deciding on actions and activitiesReduce notational clutterTry to put actions into state boxes (look for identical actions on events leading to the same state)A few practical tips.The most important one: If you have a couple of hundred objects, that does not necessarily mean that you have a couple of hundred dynamic models.Only those objects with significant dynamic behavior need to be modeled dynamically.Also, if two objects have the same dynamic behavior, it is often only necessary to model one of these objects with a dynamic model and then describe with a single sentence that the same dynamic model applies to both objects.The Power and Headlight classes from our Mini People Mover are a good example. Only one of them needs to be modeled dynamically, because they both have the same identical dynamic behavior.Because the states are permutations over different values of attribute settings, it is important to use abstraction if necessary to filter out irrelevant attributes. That is, if an attribute is not contributing to the dynamic behavior of an object, it does not have be modeled in the dynamic model. This often helps in reducing the number of states of the state diagram for the object.What makes up an action and what makes up an activity is relative, as we have already discussed earlier. If in doubt, it is always better to model something first as an action, unless somebody points out that it has internal structure which is relevant for the application, or it has a duration which is significant with respect to the overall lifetime of the object. Example: An alarm “Propulsion System Failure” should be modeled as an activity, because the propulsion system will most probably be down for a while after such a failure.
40Summary: Requirements Analysis 1. What are the transformations?Create scenarios and use case diagramsTalk to client, observe, get historical records, do thought experimentsFunctional Modeling2. What is the structure of the system?Create class diagramsIdentify objects.What are the associations between them? What is their multiplicity?What are the attributes of the objects?What operations are defined on the objects?Object ModelingThe textbook has a relatively elaborate dynamic model for a programmable thermostat. To get the concept through to you and to show the relation to the object model, I would like to use an even simpler example: The movement of a toy train.3. What is its behavior?Create sequence diagramsIdentify senders and receiversShow sequence of events exchanged between objects. Identify event dependencies and event concurrency.Create state diagramsOnly for the dynamically interesting objects.Dynamic Modeling
41Let’s Do Analysis 1. Analyze the problem statement Identify functional requirementsIdentify nonfunctional requirementsIdentify constraints (pseudo requirements)2. Build the functional model:Develop use cases to illustrate functionality requirements3. Build the dynamic model:Develop sequence diagrams to illustrate the interaction between objectsDevelop state diagrams for objects with interesting behavior4. Build the object model:Develop class diagrams showing the structure of the system
42Problem Statement: Direction Control for a Toy Car Power is turned onCar moves forward and car headlight shinesPower is turned offCar stops and headlight goes out.Headlight shinesHeadlight goes out.Car runs backward with its headlight shining.Power is turned offCar stops and headlight goes out.Power is turned onHeadlight shinesHeadlight goes out.Car runs forward with its headlight shining.
43Find the Functional Model: Do Use Case Modeling Use case 1: System InitializationEntry condition: Power is off, car is not movingFlow of events:Driver turns power onExit condition: Car moves forward, headlight is onUse case 2: Turn headlight offEntry condition: Car moves forward with headlights onDriver turns power off, car stops and headlight goes out.Driver turns power on, headlight shines and car does not move.Driver turns power off, headlight goes outExit condition: Car does not move, headlight is out
44Use Cases continued Use case 3: Move car backward Entry condition: Car is stationary, headlights offFlow of events:Driver turns power onExit condition: Car moves backward, headlight onUse case 4: Stop backward moving carEntry condition: Car moves backward, headlights onDriver turns power off, car stops, headlight goes out.Power is turned on, headlight shines and car does not move.Power is turned off, headlight goes out.Exit condition: Car does not move, headlight is out.Use case 5: Move car forwardEntry condition: Car does not move, headlight is outFlow of eventsExit condition:Car runs forward with its headlight shining.
45Use Case Pruning Do we need use case 5? Use case 1: System InitializationEntry condition: Power is off, car is not movingFlow of events:Driver turns power onExit condition: Car moves forward, headlight is onUse case 5: Move car forwardEntry condition: Car does not move, headlight is outFlow of eventsExit condition:Car runs forward with its headlight shining.
46Find the Dynamic Model: Create sequence diagram Name: Drive CarSequence of events:Billy turns power onHeadlight goes onWheels starts moving forwardWheels keeps moving forwardBilly turns power offHeadlight goes offWheels stops moving. . .
47Sequence Diagram for Drive Car Scenario :Wheel:HeadlightBilly:DriverPower(on)Power(on)Power(off)Power(on)
48Toy Car: Dynamic Model Wheel Headlight Forward Off power power off on Change arrows for Headlight states in opposite directions.Then ask question: Anybody sees what is wrong with the slide? In many cases the students will identify the arrows pointing in the wrong direction.StationaryStationarypowerpoweronoffBackward
49Toy Car: Object Model Car Power Headlight Wheel Train Headlight Wheel Status: (On, Off)TurnOn()TurnOff()HeadlightWheelStatus: (On, Off)Motion: (Forward,Backward,Switch_On()Stationary)Let them find the key abstractions: Operator, Train. Then the 3 objects in the train: Power, Headlight, Wheel. Then show that the Power and Headlight objects operate the same way, so only one object is needed to for the event scenario.Switch_Off()Start_Moving()Stop_Moving()TrainWheelMotion: (Forward,Stationary)Backward,Start_Moving()Stop_Moving()PowerHeadlightStatus: (On, Off)Status: (On, Of)fTurnOn()Switch_On()TurnOff()Switch_Off()
50Additional constraints in ARENA Project Interface EngineeringProvide ARENA players with access to an existing game: BumpersComplete Java Code for Bumpers posted on SE DiscussGreenfield EngineeringDesign a new game and provide ARENA players with access to the new gameConstraints:ExtensibilityScalabilityAdditional Constraint:The existing ARENA code does not have to be recompiled when the new game is introducedARENA does not have to be shut down (currently running games can continue) when the new game is introducedIs the “NotShutDown” requirement realistic?
51Impact on ARENA Object Model NewSystemLegacySystem
55When is a model dominant? Object model: The system has objects with nontrivial state.Dynamic model: The model has many different types of events: Input, output, exceptions, errors, etc.Functional model: The model performs complicated transformations (e.g. computations consisting of many steps).Which of these models is dominant in the following three cases?CompilerDatabase systemSpreadsheet program
56Dominance of models Compiler: Database systems: Spreadsheet program: The functional model most important. (Why?)The dynamic model is trivial because there is only one type input and only a few outputs.Database systems:The object model most important.The functional model is trivial, because the purpose of the functions is usually to store, organize and retrieve data.Spreadsheet program:The functional model most important.The dynamic model is interesting if the program allows computations on a cell.The object model is trivial, because the spreadsheet values are trivial and cannot be structured further. The only interesting object is the cell.
57Collaborative Analysis A system is a collection of subsystems providing servicesAnalysis of services is provided by a set of the teams who provide the models for their subsystemsIntegration of subsystem models into the full system model by the architecture teamAnalysis integration checklist:Are all the classes mentioned in the data dictionary?Are the names of the methods consistent with the names of actions, activities, events or processes?Check for assumptions made by each of the servicesMissing methods, classesUnmatched associations
59Object Model Integration in a large Project All TeamsRevised SystemModelModelChangesAnalysisReviewTeam 1User InterfaceTeamAnalysisAnalysisIntegratedSystemModelUser InterfaceModule 1ModuleIntegrationArchitecture TeamModule 2Module 3Module 4Module 5AnalysisAnalysisAnalysisAnalysisTeam 3Team 4Team 5Team 2
60Requirements Analysis Document Template 1. Introduction2. Current system3. Proposed system3.1 Overview3.2 Functional requirements3.3 Nonfunctional requirements3.4 Constraints (“Pseudo requirements”)3.5 System modelsScenariosUse case modelObject modelData dictionaryClass diagramsDynamic modelsUser interface4. Glossary
61Section 3.5 System Model 3.5.1 Scenarios - As-is scenarios, visionary scenarios3.5.2 Use case model- Actors and use cases3.5.3 Object model- Data dictionary- Class diagrams (classes, associations, attributes and operations)3.5.4 Dynamic model- State diagrams for classes with significant dynamic behavior- Sequence diagrams for collaborating objects (protocol)3.5.5 User Interface- Navigational Paths, Screen mockups
62Section 3.3 Nonfunctional Requirements User interface and human factorsDocumentationHardware considerationsPerformance characteristicsError handling and extreme conditionsSystem interfacingQuality issuesSystem modificationsPhysical environmentSecurity issuesResources and management issues
63Nonfunctional Requirements: Trigger Questions 3.3.1 User interface and human factorsWhat type of user will be using the system?Will more than one type of user be using the system?What sort of training will be required for each type of user?Is it particularly important that the system be easy to learn?Is it particularly important that users be protected from making errors?What sort of input/output devices for the human interface are available, and what are their characteristics?3.3.2 DocumentationWhat kind of documentation is required?What audience is to be addressed by each document?3.3.3 Hardware considerationsWhat hardware is the proposed system to be used on?What are the characteristics of the target hardware, including memory size and auxiliary storage space?
64Nonfunctional Requirements, ctd 3.3.4 Performance characteristicsAre there any speed, throughput, or response time constraints on the system?Are there size or capacity constraints on the data to be processed by the system?3.3.5 Error handling and extreme conditionsHow should the system respond to input errors?How should the system respond to extreme conditions?3.3.6 System interfacingIs input coming from systems outside the proposed system?Is output going to systems outside the proposed system?Are there restrictions on the format or medium that must be used for input or output?
65Nonfunctional Requirements, ctd 3.3.7 Quality issuesWhat are the requirements for reliability?Must the system trap faults?What is the maximum time for restarting the system after a failure?What is the acceptable system downtime per 24-hour period?Is it important that the system be portable (able to move to different hardware or operating system environments)?3.3.8 System ModificationsWhat parts of the system are likely candidates for later modification?What sorts of modifications are expected?3.3.9 Physical EnvironmentWhere will the target equipment operate?Will the target equipment be in one or several locations?Will the environmental conditions in any way be out of the ordinary (for example, unusual temperatures, vibrations, magnetic fields, ...)?
66Nonfunctional Requirements, ctd Security IssuesMust access to any data or the system itself be controlled?Is physical security an issue?Resources and Management IssuesHow often will the system be backed up?Who will be responsible for the back up?Who is responsible for system installation?Who will be responsible for system maintenance?
67Constraints (Pseudo Requirements) Any client restriction on the solution domainExamples:The target platform must be an IBM/360The implementation language must be COBOLThe documentation standard X must be usedA dataglove must be usedActiveX must be usedThe system must interface to a papertape reader
68Outline of the Lecture Dynamic modeling Sequence diagramsState diagramsUsing dynamic modeling for the design of user interfacesAnalysis exampleRequirements analysis document templateRequirements analysis model validation
69Verification and Validation of models fRfMAMAnalysisAnalysisfMMIfMSMSystemSystemDesignfMDMObjectObjectMImplfImplImplemen-tationValidationVerificationVerificationVerification
70Correctness, Completeness and Consistency Verification is an equivalence check between the transformation of two models:We have two models, is the transformation between them correct?Validation is different. We don’t have two models, we need to compare one model with reality“Reality” can also be an artificial system, like an legacy systemValidation is a critical step in the development process Requirements should be validated with the client and the user.Techniques: Formal and informal reviews (Meetings, requirements review)Requirements validation involves the following checksCorrectnessCompletenessAmbiguityRealism
71Modeling Checklist for the Review Is the model correct?A model is correct if it represents the client’s view of the the system: Everything is the model represents an aspect of realityIs the model complete?Every scenario through the system, including exceptions, is described.Is the model consistent?The model does not have components that contradict themselves (for example, deliver contradicting results)Is the model unambiguous?The model describes one system (one reality), not manyIs the model realistic?The model can be implemented without problems
72Diagram Checklist for the RAD One problem with modeling:We describe a system model with many different views (class diagram, use cases, sequence diagrams, )state charts)We need to check the equivalence of these views as wellSyntactical check of the modelsCheck for consistent naming of classes, attributes, methods in different subsystemsIdentify dangling associations (associations pointing to nowhere)Identify double- defined classesIdentify missing classes (mentioned in one model but not defined anywhere)Check for classes with the same name but different meaningsDon’t rely on CASE tools for these checksMany of the existing tools don’t do all these checks for you.Examples for syntactical problems with UML diagrams
73Different spellings in different diagrams (from)UML Sequence DiagramUML Class DiagramAttributesOperationsLeagueTournamentPlayerMatchOwner1*Tournament_BoundarymakeTournament(name, maxp)Announce_ControlcreateTournament(name, maxp)Different spellingsIn different modelsfor the same operation?
74Omissions in some diagrams AttributesOperationsLeagueTournamentPlayerMatchOwner1*Tournament_BoundaryClass DiagramMissing class(associated control objectAnnounce_Tournamentis mentioned inSequence diagram)MissingAssociation(IncompleteAnalysis?)
75Project AgreementThe project agreement represents the acceptance of (parts of) the analysis model (as documented by the requirements analysis document) by the client.The client and the developers converge on a single idea and agree about the functions and features that the system will have. In addition, they agree on:a list of prioritized requirementsa revision processa list of criteria that will be used to accept or reject the systema schedule, and a budget
76Prioritizing requirements High priority (“Core requirements”)Must be addressed during analysis, design, and implementation.A high-priority feature must be demonstrated successfully during client acceptance.Medium priority (“Optional requirements”)Must be addressed during analysis and design.Usually implemented and demonstrated in the second iteration of the system development.Low priority (“Fancy requirements”)Must be addressed during analysis (“very visionary scenarios”).Illustrates how the system is going to be used in the future if not yet available technology enablers are available
77SummaryIn this lecture, we reviewed the construction of the dynamic model from use case and object models. In particular, we described: In particular, we described:Sequence and statechart diagrams for identifying new classes and operations.In addition, we described the requirements analysis document and its components