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EDT 51-Stair Design1 Stair Design Weekend Cabin Retreat Project Sacramento City College EDT 51 Kenneth Fitzpatrick, P.E.

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Presentation on theme: "EDT 51-Stair Design1 Stair Design Weekend Cabin Retreat Project Sacramento City College EDT 51 Kenneth Fitzpatrick, P.E."— Presentation transcript:

1 EDT 51-Stair Design1 Stair Design Weekend Cabin Retreat Project Sacramento City College EDT 51 Kenneth Fitzpatrick, P.E.

2 2EDT 51-Stair Design Objectives u Define common stair terminology. u Discuss the appropriate use of various stair designs. u Design a stairway for a residential structure. u Draw structural details for a main stairs. u Perform stair calculations for a residential stairway.

3 3EDT 51-Stair Design Definitions u A stairway is a series of steps with or without landings or platforms which is installed between two or more floors of a building. u A house may have main stairs and service stairs. u Main stairs are generally of much better quality than service stairs

4 4EDT 51-Stair Design Definitions u Six general types of stairs u Straight run u L Stairs u Double-L stairs u U Stairs u Winder stairs u Spiral stairs u Circular stairs

5 5EDT 51-Stair Design Straight Run Stairs u Most common type used in residential construction. u Straight run stairs, obviously have no turns. u Least costly type. u Require a long open space in which to construct. u This may be difficult to accommodate in the floor plan

6 6EDT 51-Stair Design Straight Run Stairs

7 7EDT 51-Stair Design L Stairs u Have one landing at some point along the flight of steps. u If the landing is near the top or the bottom of the stairs, they are called a long L stair. u These stairs are used when the space required for a straight run stair is not available.

8 8EDT 51-Stair Design L Stairs

9 9EDT 51-Stair Design Long L Stairs

10 10EDT 51-Stair Design Double L Stairs u These stairs require two 90 o turns along the flight. u Used when insufficient room exists for a straight run stair or an L stair. u Double L stairs are not frequently used in residential construction. u They are expensive to build and break up the floor plan.

11 11EDT 51-Stair Design Double L Stairs

12 12EDT 51-Stair Design U Stairs u Can be constructed as either wide U or narrow U stairs u Both have two flights of steps parallel to each other with a landing between. u The difference between the wide and narrow U is the space between the flights. u Narrow U stairs have little or no space between the flights; wide U have a well between the flights

13 13EDT 51-Stair Design U Stairs

14 14EDT 51-Stair Design U Stairs

15 15EDT 51-Stair Design Winder Stairs u Have “pie-shaped” steps which are substituted for a landing. u Used when space is insufficient for an L shape. u The triangular shaped steps should be as wide as a standard step. u Are not very safe.

16 16EDT 51-Stair Design Winder Stairs

17 17EDT 51-Stair Design Spiral Stairs u Used when little space is available. u Most are made from steel and welded together. u Not very safe; have wider steps.

18 18EDT 51-Stair Design Spiral Stairs

19 19EDT 51-Stair Design Spiral Stairs

20 20EDT 51-Stair Design Circular Stairs

21 21EDT 51-Stair Design Circular Stairs

22 22EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Terminology u Baluster: vertical members that support the handrail on open stairs. u Bullnose: the first step on an open stair, which has been extended out forming a semicircle and often receiving the newel post.

23 23EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Terminology u Carriage: the rough structural support (usually 2" x 12") for treads and for risers of wood stairs, sometimes called string or stringer that has been routed or grooved to receive the treads and risers

24 24EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Terminology u Enclosed stairs: stairs that have a wall on both sides (also known as closed, housed, or box stairs) u Headroom: the shortest clear vertical distance measured between the nosing of the treads and the ceiling. u Housed stringer: a stringer that has been routed or grooved to receive the treads and risers

25 25EDT 51-Stair Design

26 26EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Terminology u Landing: the floor area at either end of the stairs and possibly at some point between, as in the case of L stairs. u Newel: the main posts of the handrail at the top, bottom or at points where the stairs change direction. u Nosing: the rounded projection of the tread which extends past the face of the riser.

27 27EDT 51-Stair Design

28 28EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Terminology u Open Stairs: stairs that have no wall on one or both sides. u Plain stringer: a stringer that has been cut or notched to fit the profile of the stairs. u Rise: the distance from the top surface of one tread to the same position on the next tread. u Riser: the vertical face of a step. u Run: the distance from the face of one riser to the face of the next.

29 29EDT 51-Stair Design

30 30EDT 51-Stair Design

31 31EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Terminology u Stringer: a structural member, also called the carriage that supports the treads and risers. u Total rise: the total floor-to-floor vertical height of the stairs. u Total run: the total horizontal length of the stairs. u Tread: the horizontal member of each step.

32 32EDT 51-Stair Design Stringer Types

33 33EDT 51-Stair Design Proper Stair Design Means u The stairs will support the required weight u The stairs are wide enough to provide ease of passage and movement of furniture. u The stairs slope between 30 and 35 degrees. u The stairs are not less than 3’-0” wide.

34 34EDT 51-Stair Design Stringer Design u The main supporting members of the stairs are the stringers. u Plain stringers and housed stringers are the two types.

35 35EDT 51-Stair Design Plain Stringers u Are generally cut from 2 x 12 straight-grain fir. u Treads and risers are nailed directly to the stringers. u This type of construction is generally used for service stairs and occasionally for main stairs if they will be carpeted. u Are sturdy, but tend to squeak. u Do not look “finished” u Treads are 2” fir; risers are 1” white pine

36 36EDT 51-Stair Design Housed Stringers u Constructed from finished lumber u Generally purchase pre-cut or pre- assembled u May, however, be cut from 1 x 12 or 2 x 12 lumber u 1/2” deep grooves are usually routed in the stringers to hold the treads. u The bottom and back sides of the grooves are wider than the thickness of the treads and risers so wedges may be driven in to hold them in place

37 37EDT 51-Stair Design

38 38EDT 51-Stair Design Housed Stringers u The treads, risers and wedges are glued and nailed into place.

39 39EDT 51-Stair Design Stringers

40 40EDT 51-Stair Design Other Stair Components u A stairway must provide a handrail for support while ascending and descending the stairs. u One rail is sufficient unless the stairs are very wide u Handrail height should be between 30 and 34 inches. u Note that the height is greater at a landing than along the incline.

41 41EDT 51-Stair Design Handrails

42 42EDT 51-Stair Design Other Stair Components u Standard Treads u 1-1/4” thick oak u 10-1/2” wide u 11-1/2” wide u A tread width of 10” is the most popular choice. u Risers u the ideal riser height is between 7” and 7- 1/2”. u Are usually 3/4” thick. u Usually made of clear white pine.

43 43EDT 51-Stair Design Treads and Risers u Every step must be the same size and proportion

44 44EDT 51-Stair Design Rules for Stair Design u Rule #1: the slope of the stairs should be between 30 and 35 degrees. u Rule #2: The sum of two risers and one tread should equal 25 inches. u Rule #3: the product of the riser height multiplied by the tread width should equal approximately 75 inches. u Rule #4: the sum of one riser and one tread should equal 17 to 18 inches.

45 45EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Calculations - Step 1 u Determine the distance from finished floor to finished floor. u This is the total rise of the stairs. u Add u the distance from the finished lower floor to finished ceiling, u the thickness of the ceiling material u width of the floor joists u thickness of the subfloor and finished floor.

46 46EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Calculations - Step 1 u Finished lower floor to8’-0” finished ceiling u The thickness of1/2” the ceiling material u Width of the floor joists9-1/4 u Thickness of the subfloor1/2” and finished floor. u Total8’-11 1/4” u Convert total to inches = 107 1/4”

47 47EDT 51-Stair Design

48 48EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Calculations - Step 2 u Determine how many risers will be required u First, divide the total rise by 7 u 7 is an ideal riser height and is the logical place to start. u 107 1/4” / 7 = risers u The number of risers must be an exact number, so 15 or 16 risers will be required. u 107 1/4” / 15 = 7.15 inches; use this height u Remember: each riser must be exactly the same height !

49 49EDT 51-Stair Design

50 50EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Calculations - Step 3 u Determine the tread size and total run which will yield a stair slope between 30 and 35 degrees. u Remember, there is always one less tread than the number of risers. The floor serves as the top tread. u Using Rule #2, the sum of two risers and one tread equals 24.80” u This is very close to the required sum of 25. u This indicates this combination will be acceptable.

51 51EDT 51-Stair Design

52 52EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Calculations - Step 3 u For comparison, use Rules #3 and #4 u #3: the product of the riser height and tread width should be approximately 75 inches. u 7.15 x 10.5 = 75.1 u #4: the sum of one riser and one tread should equal 17 to 18 inches. u 7.15” /2” = 17.65”

53 53EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Calculations - Step 4 u Darken the tread and riser lines u Draw the bottom edge of the stringer u Locate stairwell rough opening size. u This dimension is determined with the headroom dimension.

54 54EDT 51-Stair Design

55 55EDT 51-Stair Design Stair Calculations - Step 5 u Remove construction lines and add notes.

56 56EDT 51-Stair Design

57 57EDT 51-Stair Design


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