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Section 1 Introduction to Drafting Chapter 5 Sketching, Lettering, and Text.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1 Introduction to Drafting Chapter 5 Sketching, Lettering, and Text."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Section 1 Introduction to Drafting Chapter 5 Sketching, Lettering, and Text

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Explain the role of sketching in technical communication. Describe accepted techniques for sketching. Identify different styles of lettering. List and describe industry standards used for lettering on drawings.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Explain how guidelines are used to determine the height and slope of lettering. Draw single-stroke Gothic lettering. Describe the CAD functions used for creating text.

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Freehand Sketching Done without instruments. Used to evaluate concepts before starting drawing. Used to share ideas with others.

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Types of Paper for Sketching Plain paper Graph paper Isometric grid paper Drafting paper Tracing paper

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sketching Techniques Hold pencil firmly but loose enough for easy movement. Hold pencil farther back than in normal drawing. Keep eye focused on point where line will end. Darken finished lines.

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sketching Horizontal Lines Keep your arm perpendicular to line being sketched.

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Procedure for Sketching Horizontal Lines

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sketching Vertical Lines Work from top to bottom. Place your arm approximately 15  to line.

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Procedure for Sketching Vertical Lines

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sketching Inclined Lines Sketch between points or at specific angle. Use the same techniques for straight lines. Draw with paper square or rotated to simplify sketching.

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sketching Inclined Lines (Cont.)

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Estimating Angles First, sketch right angle (90  angle). Subdivide to obtain desired angle.

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sketching Methods for Circles and Arcs Centerline method Enclosing square method Hand-pivot method Free-circle method

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Centerline Method

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Enclosing Square Method

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand-Pivot Method

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Free-Circle Method

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sketching Methods for Ellipses Rectangular method Trammel method Free-ellipse method

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Rectangular Method

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Trammel Method Sketch ellipse axes. Mark points on trammel.trammel Move trammel to mark sketch points. Sketch through marks.

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Free-Ellipse Method

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sketching Irregular Curves Mark points along curve spaced at 1/4  or 1/2 . Sketch through marks.

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Methods Used to Keep Sketches in Proportion Proportion Pencil-sight method Unit method Enclosing rectangle method

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Pencil-Sight Method Hold out pencil to gauge object proportions. Lay off distances directly on sketch. Move closer to object or farther away to vary size. Useful when working with actual object.

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Pencil-Sight Method (Cont.)

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Unit Method Divide distances into units. Select appropriate unit measurement. Lay off distances on sketch in same proportion. Useful when working from picture.

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Enclosing Rectangle Method

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lettering Used to clarify drawing information. Must be done accurately for manufacturing purposes. Manual skill comes with practice. Created as text in CAD.

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Pencil Techniques for Lettering Support your arm on table. Keep your index finger in line with pencil. “Pull” pencil toward your drawing hand.

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Lettering Styles Roman Italic Text Gothic

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Gothic Lettering Drawn “sans serif.” Standard form used in drafting. Known as single-stroke Gothic.single-stroke Gothic Drawn uppercase on machine drawings. May be vertical or inclined (but never both).

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Architectural Lettering Less “mechanical” in style than Gothic lettering. Used in architectural drafting.

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Guidelines Drawn to ensure uniform letter height and straightness. Made horizontal or vertical. Should be drawn very lightly.

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Guidelines and Line Spacing Use dividers or scale to space lines. Spacing between lines should be one-half to one full letter. Lowercase letters are two-thirds full height.

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Drawing Devices for Guidelines Ames Lettering Guide Braddock-Rowe Triangle Parallelograph

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ames Lettering Guide

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Single-Stroke Gothic Lettering Drawn with single-stroke widths. Strokes carefully made as straight stems, crossbars, and ovals. Inclined lettering made at angle between 68  and 75 .

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vertical Gothic Lettering Strokes

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Vertical and Inclined Strokes Made by finger movement only.

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Horizontal Strokes Made by hand movement and slight finger movement.

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Oval Strokes Made by combination of hand and finger movement.

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Inclined Gothic Lettering Strokes

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lowercase Vertical Gothic Lettering

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lowercase Inclined Gothic Lettering

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Large and Small Uppercase Lettering Used by some for titles or notes. May be easier to read than all uppercase. Small letters are two-thirds to four-fifths the letter height.

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Proportion in Lettering Elements must be spaced correctly to achieve proportion. Keep spacing uniform even when space is limited or must be expanded.

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Stability in Lettering Crossbars placed above center to prevent top-heavy appearance. Some letters have smaller upper portion for stability.

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lettering Quality Letters are formed, not “written.” Style, height, spacing, and stroke kept uniform.

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Word Composition Spacing between letters based on total letter area. Do not crowd letters or space too widely.

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Word Composition (Cont.) Spacing between words equal to letter “O.” Sentences separated by two letters.

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Line Spacing Should be two-thirds to full letter height. Should be full height if line includes fractions.

54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lettering Height Typically 1/8  for notes and 1/4  for drawing title. Fractions drawn twice full height. Company standards may vary.

55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Spacing Words Evenly Typically applied in title block. Draw on separate sheet and trace if necessary.

56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lettering with Ink Common for technical publications. Requires special skill. Technical pen typically used. (Alvin & Co.)

57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Mechanical Lettering Devices Used to trace letters to simplify inking process. Leroy lettering device Lettering templates Scriber

58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lettering Template

59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Transfer Type Available on printed sheets. Requires special tool to “transfer” lettering. Similar to adhesive-backed overlays.overlays

60 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Transfer Type (Cont.)

61 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Creating Text in CAD Provides many advantages over manual lettering. Appearance controlled by text style settings.text style Text commands used to enter text. Standard drafting symbols available for insertion. Editing functions simplify revisions.

62 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. CAD-Generated Text (Autodesk, Inc.)

63 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Creating Text in CAD 1.Create text style with appropriate settings. 2.Enter text command. 3.Specify justification and rotation.justification 4.Select insertion point. 5.Enter text.

64 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Text Style Provides efficient way to manage text appearance. Multiple styles may be used for notes, dimensions, and title block. Settings allow definitions for different drafting disciplines.

65 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Common Text Style Settings Font Height Width Obliquing angle

66 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Text Font Selection depends on application. May contain serifs or decorative elements. Romans (Roman Simplex) used for mechanical drawings.

67 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Text Justification Controls placement of text in relation to insertion point. Left justification set by default.

68 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Text Justification Options Left Right Center Middle Aligned

69 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Text Rotation No rotation set by default. Measured from 0  horizontal. Positive angle rotates text counterclockwise. Negative angle rotates text clockwise.

70 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Editing Text Text editing command typically used. Standard object editing commands also available. Double-clicking string may allow modification. Spell command used to check spelling.

71 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 1.Which of the following items should not be used when making a freehand sketch? A. Graph paper B. Scale C. F or HB grade pencil D. Soft eraser B. Scale

72 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 2.Which of the following guidelines applies when sketching lines? A. Sketch vertical lines from the bottom to the top. B. Keep your eye focused on the pencil when sketching initial strokes. C. Make initial lines dark and thick. D.Keep your fingers farther back on the pencil than in normal drawing. D. Keep your fingers farther back on the pencil than in normal drawing.

73 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 73 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 3.Which sketching method for circles requires the use of hand-eye coordination without layout lines? A. Enclosing square method B. Centerline method C. Free-circle method D. Hand-pivot method C. Free-circle method

74 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 74 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 4.A(n) _____ is a piece of paper marked with points to lay off distances. trammel

75 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 75 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 5._____ is the relationship of one part of an object to another part, or to the whole object. Proportion

76 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 76 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 6.The standard letter form used in drafting is single-stroke _____ lettering. Gothic

77 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 77 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 7.Horizontal and vertical _____ are used in freehand lettering to maintain uniformity in height and slope. guidelines

78 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 78 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 8. Which of the following guidelines applies when lettering? A. Vertical and inclined strokes are made by pivoting the hand at the wrist. B. Inclined lettering is drawn at an angle between 30  and 45 . C. The standard lettering height for notes is 3/4 . D.Spacing between lines of letters should equal two- thirds the letter height. D.Spacing between lines of letters should equal two-thirds the letter height.

79 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 79 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 9.A text _____ consists of settings that define the appearance of text. style

80 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 80 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 10.The _____ text font is similar to the Gothic typeface and is commonly used on mechanical drawings. Romans

81 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 81 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Questions 11.The text _____ determines how a text string will be placed in relation to the insertion point. justification

82 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 82 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Font A named typeface that refers to the appearance of text. Guidelines Vertical and horizontal lines used in freehand lettering to maintain uniformity in height and slope.

83 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 83 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Justification A text setting that determines how a text string is placed in relation to a selected insertion point. Left justification means the text will start at the point and continue to the right. Right justification means the text will end at the point and start to the left of the point. Center justification means the text will be centered about the point.

84 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 84 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Lettering The process of placing text on a drawing manually. Obliquing angle The angle of each character in an inclined string of text.

85 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 85 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Overlays A set of transparent or translucent prints that form a composite picture when correctly registered on top of one another. Proportion The relation of one part to another, or to the whole object.

86 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 86 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Single-stroke Gothic The standard lettering style used in drafting. Single-stroke refers to the width of the various parts of the letters being formed by a single stroke. Text style In CAD applications, a collection of settings that define the appearance of text.

87 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 87 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Trammel A straightedge instrument marked with points to lay off distances in manual drafting. Transfer type Adhesive-backed or pressure-sensitive graphic materials that can be quickly applied (or “transferred”) to drawings.


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