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Introduction to the Human Body-Chapter 1 Outline.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Human Body-Chapter 1 Outline."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the Human Body-Chapter 1 Outline

2 Divisions of Study Divisions of Study A. Study of human body divided into two areas A. Study of human body divided into two areas Anatomy- study of structure Anatomy- study of structure i.e. gross anatomy i.e. gross anatomy Physiology- function Physiology- function i.e. Quadricep: how it contracts i.e. Quadricep: how it contracts

3 B. The study of Anatomy describes B. The study of Anatomy describes 1. location- where is it? 1. location- where is it? 2. appearance- what does it look like? 2. appearance- what does it look like? 3. relationship of body parts- how does one part relate to others? 3. relationship of body parts- how does one part relate to others?

4 C. The study of Physiology explains the mechanisms that operate body activities- How does it work? C. The study of Physiology explains the mechanisms that operate body activities- How does it work? Ex- muscle/muscle system. How do muscles contract and relax to make the muscular system work? Ex- muscle/muscle system. How do muscles contract and relax to make the muscular system work?

5 D. How a particular body part works, depends on its structure D. How a particular body part works, depends on its structure Ex- The function of the skeletal system is to give our body Ex- The function of the skeletal system is to give our body 1.support 2. structure 3. protection 1.support 2. structure 3. protection structure: bones are made up of hard materials such as calcium to help in its function structure: bones are made up of hard materials such as calcium to help in its function

6 II. Basic Terminology II. Basic Terminology A. Terms used in the study of Anatomy and Physiology are based on A. Terms used in the study of Anatomy and Physiology are based on latinor greek word parts. latinor greek word parts. 1. Universal language 1. Universal language 2. Understood throughout the world 2. Understood throughout the world

7 B. Anatomical terms formed from these word parts are often descriptive of the body part or function B. Anatomical terms formed from these word parts are often descriptive of the body part or function Ex Myocardium- Myo (Greek)= muscle + cardia( heart)= heart muscle Ex Myocardium- Myo (Greek)= muscle + cardia( heart)= heart muscle Erythrocyte- Erythro (Greek)= red + cyte(cell)= red blood cell Erythrocyte- Erythro (Greek)= red + cyte(cell)= red blood cell

8 C. Directional Terms C. Directional Terms 1. Directional Terminology- language used to describe the location of a body structure relative to another 1. Directional Terminology- language used to describe the location of a body structure relative to another a. Based on Body being in the Anatomical Position a. Based on Body being in the Anatomical Position 1. Standing- erect 1. Standing- erect 2. Facing- the observer 2. Facing- the observer 3. Arms- at the side 3. Arms- at the side 4. Palms and Toes- turned forward 4. Palms and Toes- turned forward

9 b. Directional Terminology is invaluable tool- eliminates lengthy descriptions and removes question of what position the body is in. b. Directional Terminology is invaluable tool- eliminates lengthy descriptions and removes question of what position the body is in.

10 1. Superior- towards the head or upper body 1. Superior- towards the head or upper body Ex- head is superior to chest Ex- head is superior to chest 2. Inferior- away from head or towards lower part of body 2. Inferior- away from head or towards lower part of body Ex- buttocks is inferior to the back Ex- buttocks is inferior to the back

11 3. Anterior- (ventral)- towards front body 3. Anterior- (ventral)- towards front body Ex- eyes are on the anterior portion of head Ex- eyes are on the anterior portion of head 4. Posterior- (dorsal)- towards the back of body 4. Posterior- (dorsal)- towards the back of body Ex- backbone extends down the posterior side of the body Ex- backbone extends down the posterior side of the body

12 5. Medial- towards the midline of body 5. Medial- towards the midline of body Ex- medial portion of thigh Ex- medial portion of thigh 6. Lateral- away from midline 6. Lateral- away from midline Ex- ears are in the lateral portion of the head Ex- ears are in the lateral portion of the head

13 7. Proximal- towards a structure’s origin 7. Proximal- towards a structure’s origin (origin is the point of attachment) (origin is the point of attachment) Ex- humerus is proximal to the wrist Ex- humerus is proximal to the wrist 8. Distal- away from structure’s origin 8. Distal- away from structure’s origin Ex- wrist is distal to humerus Ex- wrist is distal to humerus

14 9. Superficial- towards the surface 9. Superficial- towards the surface Ex- skin is superficial to skeleton Ex- skin is superficial to skeleton 10. Deep- inward from surface of body 10. Deep- inward from surface of body Ex- heart and lungs lie deep to rib cage Ex- heart and lungs lie deep to rib cage

15 2. Body Planes 2. Body Planes a. A plane is an imaginary flat surface, used by anatomical artists to slice through a specimen a. A plane is an imaginary flat surface, used by anatomical artists to slice through a specimen b. Three basic types of Body Planes b. Three basic types of Body Planes

16 1. Sagittal- divides body into right and left halves 1. Sagittal- divides body into right and left halves (midsagittal/median)- divides right and left sides equally (midsagittal/median)- divides right and left sides equally 2. Frontal- divides body into front and back 2. Frontal- divides body into front and back 3. Transverse (horizontal)- divides body into upper and lower body parts and makes a clear cross-section 3. Transverse (horizontal)- divides body into upper and lower body parts and makes a clear cross-section

17 Sagittal Plane Separates the body into right and left segments Mid-sagittal plane separates into equal right and left segments Imaginary line known as the midline

18 Frontal Plane (Coronal plane) Separates the body into front and back segments Better used terminology would be?

19 Transverse Plane Separates the body into upper and lower segments Better used terminology would be?

20 III. Structural Levels of Organization III. Structural Levels of Organization Human Body composed of 6 distinct levels or organization Human Body composed of 6 distinct levels or organization A. Chemical level- atoms → molecules → macromolecules A. Chemical level- atoms → molecules → macromolecules macro: proteins macro: proteins lipids lipids carbs. ( all give structural foundation for body) carbs. ( all give structural foundation for body) nucleic acids nucleic acids

21 B. Cellular level- basic structural and functional units of living things B. Cellular level- basic structural and functional units of living things Ex- blood, muscle cells, nerve cells Ex- blood, muscle cells, nerve cells C. Tissue level- group of similar cells that combine to form common fxn C. Tissue level- group of similar cells that combine to form common fxn Ex- muscle tissue Ex- muscle tissue D. Organ level- two or more different types of tissues performing a general fxn D. Organ level- two or more different types of tissues performing a general fxn

22 E. System level- two or more organs acting in conjunction to make a system E. System level- two or more organs acting in conjunction to make a system F. Complete Organism- composed of many systems depending on one another to perform tasks F. Complete Organism- composed of many systems depending on one another to perform tasks

23 IV. The Body Plan IV. The Body Plan A. Human Body is divided into major areas called regions A. Human Body is divided into major areas called regions 1. Head- cranium/cephalic region 1. Head- cranium/cephalic region face (frontal) face (frontal) 2. Neck- cervical 2. Neck- cervical 3. Trunk- thorax (sternal and pectoral) 3. Trunk- thorax (sternal and pectoral) abdominal, umbilical, inguinal (groin) abdominal, umbilical, inguinal (groin) pelvis (inguinal/groin), coxal (hip), pelvis (inguinal/groin), coxal (hip), back (dorsum, vertebral,lumbar,sacral back (dorsum, vertebral,lumbar,sacral

24 4. Upper Appendage- from superior to inferior shoulder (acromial),armpit (axilla) upper arm (brachium) elbow (cubital) front of elbow (antecubital) forearm (antebrachium) wrist (carpus), hand (manus), palm of hand (palmar), fingers (digits)

25 5. Lower Appendage- from superior to inferior Buttocks (Gluteus) anal-reproductive organ area (perineal) thigh (femorus) knee (popliteal/patellar), lower leg (crural) instep (tarsal), top of foot (pedal), bottom of foot (plantar), toes (digits)

26 B. Body Cavities B. Body Cavities 1. the body is divided into several cavities that contain many organs. 1. the body is divided into several cavities that contain many organs. 2. There are 2 major body cavities which can be subdivided into several smaller cavities. 2. There are 2 major body cavities which can be subdivided into several smaller cavities.

27 a. Dorsal Cavity- posterior side of body a. Dorsal Cavity- posterior side of body 1. Cranial Cavity- skull (protects brain) 1. Cranial Cavity- skull (protects brain) 2. Vertebral Canal- vertebrae (protects spinal cord) 2. Vertebral Canal- vertebrae (protects spinal cord)

28

29 b. Ventral Cavity-anterior side of body b. Ventral Cavity-anterior side of body 1. Separated into two smaller cavities by the- diaphragm 1. Separated into two smaller cavities by the- diaphragm (Greek for barrier) (Greek for barrier) L3= ventral is divided into smaller cavities L3= ventral is divided into smaller cavities pleural: lung pleural: lung pericardial: heart pericardial: heart

30 . Thoracic Cavity- upper portion of body. Thoracic Cavity- upper portion of body protected by rib cage, locates lungs and heart protected by rib cage, locates lungs and heart b. Abdominopelvic Cavity- lower portion of body b. Abdominopelvic Cavity- lower portion of body -abdominal: protects stomach, s. & l intestines, liver, pancreas, spleen. -abdominal: protects stomach, s. & l intestines, liver, pancreas, spleen. -pelvic Cavity- formed by iliac (hip), contains urinary bladder, repro. parts. -pelvic Cavity- formed by iliac (hip), contains urinary bladder, repro. parts.

31 Pleural cavity Cover the two lungs individually Cover the two lungs individually Complications? Complications?

32 Pericardial cavity Outer covering of the heart Outer covering of the heart Similar complications as with the lungs Similar complications as with the lungs

33 L3 DRAW PICTURE OF 4 QUADS AND LABEL ORGANS L3 DRAW PICTURE OF 4 QUADS AND LABEL ORGANS


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