2Divisions of StudyA. Study of human body divided into two areasAnatomy- study of structurei.e. gross anatomyPhysiology- functioni.e. Quadricep: how it contracts
3B. The study of Anatomy describes 1. location- where is it?2. appearance- what does it look like?3. relationship of body parts- how does one part relate to others?
4C. The study of Physiology explains the mechanisms that operate body activities-How does it work? Ex- muscle/muscle system. How do muscles contract and relax to make the muscular system work?
5D. How a particular body part works, depends on its structure Ex- The function of the skeletal system is to give our body1.support 2. structure 3. protectionstructure: bones are made up of hard materials such as calcium to help in its function
6II. Basic TerminologyA. Terms used in the study of Anatomy and Physiology are based onlatin or greek word parts.1. Universal language2. Understood throughout the world
7B. Anatomical terms formed from these word parts are often descriptive of the body part or function Ex Myocardium- Myo (Greek)= muscle + cardia( heart)= heart muscleErythrocyte- Erythro (Greek)= red + cyte(cell)= red blood cell
8C. Directional Terms1. Directional Terminology- language used to describe the location of a body structure relative to anothera. Based on Body being in the Anatomical Position1. Standing- erect2. Facing- the observer3. Arms- at the side4. Palms and Toes- turned forward
9b. Directional Terminology is invaluable tool- eliminates lengthy descriptions and removes question of what position the body is in.
101. Superior- towards the head or upper body Ex- head is superior to chest2. Inferior- away from head or towards lower part of bodyEx- buttocks is inferior to the back
113. Anterior- (ventral)- towards front body Ex- eyes are on the anterior portion of head4. Posterior- (dorsal)- towards the back of bodyEx- backbone extends down the posterior side of the body
125. Medial- towards the midline of body Ex- medial portion of thigh6. Lateral- away from midlineEx- ears are in the lateral portion of the head
137. Proximal- towards a structure’s origin (origin is the point of attachment)Ex- humerus is proximal to the wrist8. Distal- away from structure’s originEx- wrist is distal to humerus
149. Superficial- towards the surface Ex- skin is superficial to skeleton10. Deep- inward from surface of bodyEx- heart and lungs lie deep to rib cage
152. Body Planesa. A plane is an imaginary flat surface, used by anatomical artists to slice through a specimenb. Three basic types of Body Planes
161. Sagittal- divides body into right and left halves (midsagittal/median)- divides right and left sides equally2. Frontal- divides body into front and back3. Transverse (horizontal)- divides body into upper and lower body parts and makes a clear cross-section
17Sagittal Plane Separates the body into right and left segments Mid-sagittal plane separates into equal right and left segmentsImaginary line known as the midline
18Frontal Plane (Coronal plane) Separates the body into front and back segmentsBetter used terminology would be?
19Transverse Plane Separates the body into upper and lower segments Better used terminology would be?
20III. Structural Levels of Organization Human Body composed of 6 distinct levels or organizationA. Chemical level- atoms→molecules→macromoleculesmacro: proteinslipidscarbs ( all give structural foundation for body)nucleic acids
21B. Cellular level- basic structural and functional units of living things Ex- blood, muscle cells, nerve cellsC. Tissue level- group of similar cells that combine to form common fxnEx- muscle tissueD. Organ level- two or more different types of tissues performing a general fxn
22E. System level- two or more organs acting in conjunction to make a system F. Complete Organism- composed of many systems depending on one another to perform tasks
23IV. The Body PlanA. Human Body is divided into major areas called regions1. Head- cranium/cephalic regionface (frontal)2. Neck- cervical3. Trunk- thorax (sternal and pectoral)abdominal, umbilical, inguinal (groin)pelvis (inguinal/groin), coxal (hip),back (dorsum, vertebral,lumbar,sacral
24shoulder (acromial),armpit (axilla) upper arm (brachium) 4. Upper Appendage- from superior to inferiorshoulder (acromial),armpit (axilla)upper arm (brachium)elbow (cubital) front of elbow (antecubital)forearm (antebrachium)wrist (carpus), hand (manus), palm of hand(palmar), fingers (digits)
255. Lower Appendage- from superior to inferior Buttocks (Gluteus) anal-reproductive organ area (perineal) thigh (femorus) knee (popliteal/patellar), lower leg (crural) instep (tarsal), top of foot (pedal), bottomof foot (plantar), toes (digits)
26B. Body Cavities1. the body is divided into several cavities that contain many organs.2. There are 2 major body cavities which can be subdivided into several smaller cavities.
27a. Dorsal Cavity- posterior side of body 1. Cranial Cavity- skull (protects brain)2. Vertebral Canal- vertebrae (protects spinal cord)
29b. Ventral Cavity-anterior side of body 1. Separated into two smaller cavities by the- diaphragm(Greek for barrier)L3= ventral is divided into smaller cavitiespleural: lungpericardial: heart
30. Thoracic Cavity- upper portion of body protected by rib cage, locates lungs and heartb. Abdominopelvic Cavity- lower portion of body-abdominal: protects stomach, s. & l intestines, liver, pancreas, spleen.-pelvic Cavity- formed by iliac (hip), contains urinary bladder, repro. parts.
31Pleural cavityCover the two lungs individuallyComplications?
32Pericardial cavity Outer covering of the heart Similar complications as with the lungs