Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Radiation Overview -Unclassified - Presented by Capt. Colbrunn (Tank)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Radiation Overview -Unclassified - Presented by Capt. Colbrunn (Tank)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation Overview -Unclassified - Presented by Capt. Colbrunn (Tank)
Xenia Twp Fire Dept Used with permission from Wright-Patterson AFB Radiation Safety office -Unclassified -

2 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation consists of electromagnetic or particulate radiations capable of interacting with the atom causing removal of one or more electrons such that the atom has a resulting net positive charge Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

3 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 DEFINITIONS Radioactivity - a property of some species of atoms to spontaneously emit radiation(s) usually by disintegration of the nuclei of the atoms Radiation - the energy or particles emitted when a radionuclide transforms or disintegrates (radiation is not the same as radioactivity) Radionuclide - a nuclide that emits radiation(s) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

4 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Ionizing Vs Non-ionizing x-ray machine microwave radar AM/FM gamma ray Ionizing Non-ionizing (Matching Game) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

5

6

7 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Activity curie (Ci) The activity of 1 gram of 226Ra 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second (dps) becquerel one disintegration per second (dps) one dps is NOT synonymous with the number of particles emitted by the isotope in one second Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

8 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Half -life The interval at which a radionuclide decays to one-half the original activity Each radionuclide has its own characteristic half-life Half-lives range from microseconds to billions of years Radionuclide Half-life 57Co days 241Am years 63Ni years 226Ra years 109Cd days Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

9 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Decay Methods Alpha (a) Beta minus (b-) Beta positive (b+) (positron) and Electron Capture Gamma (associated with other types of decay) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

10 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Line of Stability Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

11 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Exposure Roentgen (R) the measure of the number of ion-pairs produced by gamma radiation in a certain volume of air + Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

12 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 DOSE RAD (Radiation Absorbed Dose) an absorbed radiation dose of 100 ergs per gram energy deposited by any ionizing radiation in a unit mass of any absorber Gray (Gy) 1 Gy = 100 rads Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

13 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 DOSE REM (RAD Equivalent Man) the absorbed dose (RAD) multiplied by a quality factor to equalize biological consequences Sievert (Sv) 1 Sv = 100 rems Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

14 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Radiation Quality Factor x-ray gamma beta alpha neutron (unknown energy) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

15 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Exposure Vs Contamination Exposure - the delivery of radiation to an individual that results in the receipt of a radiation dose Contamination - radioactive material distributed in an unwanted place or location Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

16 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 No biological sensors of ionizing radiation Must depend on instruments Interaction with matter principles used Detection is dependent on type of radiation Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

17 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Dose Vs Dose Rate Dose - generic term that means absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent or total effective dose equivalent (mrem) Dose Rate - the rate at which a dose is being delivered per a time interval (mrem per hour) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

18 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Why does alpha have a higher quality factor? Radiation Type In Air Typical Shielding Material Used Alpha inches paper or aluminum foil Beta feet aluminum or Lucite Gamma hundreds lead or concrete of feet Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

19 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Internal Dose Dose Equivalent (HT) - the product of the absorbed dose in tissue, quality factor, and all other necessary modifying factors at the location of interest. Effective Dose Equivalent (HE) - the sum of the products of the dose equivalent to the organ or tissue (HT) and the weighting factors (WT) applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated (HE = SWT HT) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

20 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 ORGAN DOSE WEIGHTING FACTORS results from 0.06 for each of the “remainder” organs (excluding the skin and the lens of the eye) that receive the highest dose. Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

21 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Internal Dose Committed Dose Equivalent (HT,50) - the dose equivalent to organs or tissues of reference (T) that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50-year period following the intake Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (HE,50) - the sum of the products of the weighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissues that are irradiated and the committed dose equivalent to these organs or tissues (HE,50 = SWT HT,50) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

22 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) - the sum of the deep-dose equivalent (for external exposures) and the committed effective dose equivalent (for internal exposures) TEDE = Deep Dose + CEDE Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

23 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Direct ionization and excitation radiation + H2O à H2O+ + e- à H+ + OH- radiation + H2O à Ho + OHo (free radical) occurs anywhere in body Indirect Radicals react with biological molecule and damage it Radicals combine OHo + OHo à H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

24 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Cell Division Parent Irradiated Cell Irradiated Cell Cell Division Growth No Division Daughter Cells Normal Mutant cells (death, altered DNA) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

25 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Linear/Threshold Confirmed Data Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

26 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Most to least radiosensitive Immature male sex cells White blood cells Bone marrow cells Epithelial cells of the intestine Cells such as the skin covering external surfaces Cells that line the closed cavities of the body (i.e., heart, blood vessels) Bone cells Nerve cells Brain cells Muscle cells Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

27 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Radiation Effects Two types of exposure Acute - a single accidental exposure to a high dose during a short period of time Chronic - a long-term, low level exposure Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

28 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Acute Exposures Factors Type of radiation Absorbed dose Dose distribution Age Stages Initial (nausea, vomiting) Latent Manifest illness Recovery Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

29 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Acute Exposure Dose Effect 1 rad to bone marrow 20-50 rad (whole body) > rad (whole body) 300 rad (skin) 450 rads (whole body) rad, (local to eye) > rads (whole body) 10,000 rads (whole body) (localized) risk of leukemia blood changes mild radiation sickness erythema LD 50/30 cataracts death in 1 to 2 weeks death in hours to days cancer treatments Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

30 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Chronic Exposure (Delayed Effects) Cancer leukemia bone lung skin etc. Genetic Life shortening Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

31 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Somatic - effects which occur to an individual being exposed during their lifetime Genetic - effects that are act on the offspring of the individual being exposed Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

32 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Dose-Response Characteristics Stochastic effects that occur by chance occur among unexposed as well as among exposed in radiation, main effects are cancer and genetic effects Non-Stochastic certain minimum dose must be exceeded for effect magnitude of effect increases with size of dose clear causal relationship between exposure and effect Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

33 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 RISKS The human population has always received radiation exposure from natural sources such as cosmic, dietary, and soil. Additional sources of exposure are medical exposures, occupations exposures and some industrial and consumer products. Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

34 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Annual effective dose equivalent in the U.S. population Source Average Dose (mrem) Natural sources Radon Other Occupational Nuclear fuel cycle Consumer products Tobacco Other Misc. Environ Sources Medical Diagnostic x-ray Nuclear medicine Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

35 Natural Radioactivity in Food
40K pCi/kg 226Ra Banana 3520 1 Brazil nuts 5600 Carrot 3400 0.6-2 White potatoes 1-2.5 Beer 390 --- Red meat 3000 0.5 Lima bean raw 4640 2-5 Drinking water 0-0.17 Ref:

36 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Sources of Radiation Exposure Terrestrial 8% Internal 11% Cosmic 8% Medical X-rays 11% Nuclear Medicine 4% Consumer Products 3% Radon 55% Other <1% Occupational Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fall out Misc Average Exposure 360 mrem/yr Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

37 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Source of Radiation (excludes indoor radon) 1. Cosmic Radiation: 40 mrem a sea level (Add 1 mrem for each 100 feet elevation) 2. House Construction: Wood: 35 mrem Concrete: 50 mrem Brick: 75 mrem 3. Water and Food a. U.S. average __ b. Heavy smoker (add 30 mrem) c. Drink beer (add 1 mrem for each 100 bottles) _____ 4. Air a. Natural - U.S. average b. Weapons testing 5. Transcontinental Flights: Add 4 mrem for each 5000 miles in flight 6. Radium Dial Wrist Watch: (add 2 mrem) Television: U.S. average __ 8. Radioactivity in Human Body a. Dose to yourself (K-40) __ b. Sleep with spouse (add 0.3 mrem) c. Dose to yourself (C-14) 9. Medical and Dental Diagnosis a. U.S. average 55 mrem or b. For each chest, teeth, head neck and bone x-ray, add 20 mrem c. For each spinal column and kidney x-ray , add 200 mrem d. For each stomach, intestines and gall bladder x-ray, add 250 mrem 10. Live in the vicinity of large coal-fired power plant (add 0.1 mrem) 11. Live in the vicinity of large geothermal power plant (add 1 to 100 mrem) 12. Nuclear Power Plants: a. If you live (1) At boundary fence (fraction of year spent times 5 mrem) (2) One mile away (fraction of year spent times 0.5 mrem) (3) Five miles away (fraction of year spent times 0.05 mrem ______ b. General U.S. population: Add 0.01 mrem Total mrem/year Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

38 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 RISKS It is estimated that if 100,000 persons of all ages received a whole body dose of 10 rad of gamma radiation in a single brief exposure, about 800 extra cancer deaths would be expected to occur during their remaining lifetimes (BEIR V) It is estimated that if 100,000 persons of all ages received a continuous lifetime whole body dose of 100 mrad per year, about 550 extra deaths would be expected. (BEIR V) Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

39 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Objectives of Radiation Protection To prevent the occurrence of clinically significant radiation-induced deterministic effects by adhering to dose limits that are below the apparent threshold levels; and To limit the risk of stochastic effects, cancer and genetic effects, to a reasonable level in relation to societal needs, values, benefits gained and economic factors NCRP No. 116 Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

40 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 External Radiation Protection Measures Time Distance Shielding Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

41 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 TIME dose rate x exposure time = total dose 20 mRem/hr x 30 min = 10 mRem Reduce time reduces exposure 1000 mR/hr for 2 minutes = ________________ Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

42 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 DISTANCE Radiation exposure decreases with increasing distance Decrease by inverse square law Double the distance decrease the exposure by 4 Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

43 Shielding Paper Plastic Lead Concrete Alpha Beta Gamma and X-rays Neutron

44 Radiation Safety Training
4/14/2017 Response Actions Fire, Explosion, Instrument Damage, etc. Secure the area Keep Unauthorized persons away Alert people within the vicinity Notify Department of Energy (DOE) Initiate appropriate actions Make appropriate written report Loss or Theft Immediate notification of DOE and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Immediate notification of Radioisotope Committee Make written report Immediately begin search Section 2 - Quantities, Units and Terms

45

46

47 Susan, I see you have grown a foot since the last time I saw you !


Download ppt "Radiation Overview -Unclassified - Presented by Capt. Colbrunn (Tank)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google