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Muscle Review Chapters 9 & 10.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscle Review Chapters 9 & 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscle Review Chapters 9 & 10

2 Epicranius - Frontal belly
Description: covers forehead and dome of skull – no boney attachments Origin: galea aponeurotica Insertion: skin of the eyebrows, root of nose Action: raises eyebrows wrinkles forehead skin horizontally


4 Epicranius – occipital belly
Description: overlies posterior occiput; be pulling on the galea, fixes origin of frontalis Origin: occipital and temporal bones Insertion: galea aponeurotica Action: fixes aponeurosis and pulls scalp posteriorly

5 Temporalis Description: fan-shaped muscle that covers part of the temporal, frontal and parietal bones Origin: temporal fossa Insertion: coronoid process of mandible via tendon Action: Closes jaw, elevates and retract mandible, maintains jaw position at rest

6 Orbicularis Oculi Description: thin, tripartite sphincter muscle of eyelid, surround rim of orbit Origin: frontal and maxillary bones and ligaments around orbit Insertion: tissue of eyelid Action: protects eye from intense light and injury, blinking, squinting, draws eyebrows inferiorly

7 Masseter Description: Powerful muscle that covers lateral aspect of mandibular ramus Origin: zygomatic arch and maxilla Insertion: angle of ramus of mandible Action: prime mover of jaw closers: elevates mandible

8 Zygomaticus Description: muscle pair extending diagonally from cheekbone to corner of mouth Origin: zygomatic bone Insertion: skin and muscle at corner of mouth Action: raises lateral corners of mouth upward (smiling muscle)

9 Orbicularis Oris Description: Complicated multilayered muscle of the lips with fibers that run in many different directions (most run circularly) Origin: indirectly from maxilla and mandible, fibers blend with fibers of other facial muscles Insertion: encircles mouth Action: closes lips, purses and protrudes lips (kissing and whistling muscle)

10 Platysma Description: Unpaired, thin sheet-like superficial neck muscle, plays a role in facial expression Origin: fascia of chest (over pectoral and deltoid) Insertion: lower margin of mandible and skin at corner of mouth Action: downward sag of mouth, tenses skin of neck for shaving


12 Sternohyoid Description: most medial muscle of the neck: thin, superficial except inferiorly, where cover by the sternocleidomastoid Origin: manubrium and medial end of clavicle Insertion: lower margin of hyoid bone Action: depresses larynx and hyoid bone if mandible is fixed may also flex skull

13 Sternocleidomastoid Description: two-headed muscle loacted deep to the platysma on anterolateral surface of neck Origin: manubrium and medial portion of clavicle Insertion: mastoid process of temporal bone Action: primer mover of head flexion; actin g alone can rotate head toward shoulder on opposite side, tilts head laterally


15 Pectoralis minor Description: Flat, thin muscle directly beneath and obscured by pectoralis major Origin: anterior surface of ribs 3-5 or (2-4) Insertion: coracoid process of scapula Action: With ribs fixed, draws scapula forward and downward, with scapula fixed draws rib cage superiorly

16 Pectoralis major Description: large, fan-shaped muscle covering upper portion of chest, divided into clavicular and sternal parts Origin: sternal end of clavicle, cartilage of ribs 1-6 (or 7) and aponeurosis of external oblique Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus Action: prime mover of arm flexion, rotates arm medially, assist in climbing, throwing, pushing and forced inspiration


18 Serratus Anterior Description: fan-shaped muscle; lies deep to the scapula, beneath and inferior to pectoral muscles on lateral rib cage Origin: ribs 1-8 (or 9) Insertion: entire anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula Action: prime mover to protract and hold scapula against chest wall; abduction and raising arm, pushing punching (boxer’s muscle)


20 Infraspinatus Description: partially covered by deltoid and trapezius, named for its scapular location: rotator cuff muscle Origin: infraspinatus fossa of scapula Insertion: greater tubercle of humerus posterior to supraspinatus Action: helps to hold the head of humerus in the glenoid cavity, stabilizing the joint,rotates humerus laterally


22 Teres Major Description: Thick, rounded muscle located inferior to teres minor Origin: postrior surface of scapula at inferior angle Insertion: intertubercular sulcus of humerus; insertion tendon is fused with latisimus dorsi Action: posteromedially extends, medially rotates and adducts humerus; synergist of lats

23 Rhomboids Description: two rectangular muscles lying deep to the trapezius and inferior to levator scapulae Origin: spinous processes of C7 and T5 Insertion: medial border of scapula Action: retract scapula “squaring the shoulders” rotate glenoid cavity of scapula downward (paddling a canoe) stabilizing shoulder

24 Latissimus dorsi Description: broad, flat, triangular muscle of low back Origin: indirect attachment via lumbodorsal fascia into spines of lower 6 thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae and lower 3-4 ribs, iliac crest Insertion: spirals around teres major to insert in floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus Action: primer mover of arm extension, arm adduction, medially rotates arm at shoulder

25 Intercostals internal/external
Description: (external)11 pairs lie between ribs, fibers run obliquely down and forward from rib to rib (internal)11 pairs, run deep and to right angles of external fibers Origins: (external) inferior border of rib above (internal) superior border of rib below Insertions: (external) superior border of rib below, (internal) inferior border of rib above Actions: (external)aid in inspiration, (internal) aid in expiration


27 Rectus Abdominis Description: medial superficial muscle pair extend from pubis to rib cage, segmented 3 sections Origin: pubic crest and symphysis Insertion: xiphoid process and costal cartilage Action: flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebral column used in sit-ups and curls


29 External Oblique Description: largest and most superficial of three lateral muscles, fibers run downward and medially Origin: fleshy strips from outer surface of lower 8 ribs Insertion: fibers insert into linea alba, pubic crest and tubercle, and iliac crest Action: aid in flexing vertebral column, trunk rotation and lateral flexion, used in oblique curls

30 Internal Obliques Description: most fibers run upward and medially, fans so some run down and medially Origin: lumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inguinal ligament Insertion: linea alba, pubic crest, last 3-4 ribs Action: same as external oblique

31 Transversus Abdominus
Description: deepest muscle of abdominal wall, fiber run horizontally Origin: inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, cartilage of last 6 ribs Insertion: linea alba, pubic crest Action: compresses abdominal contents


33 Deltoid Description: thick, multi-pennate muscle forming rounded shoulder muscle mass Origin: embraces insertion of trapezius; lateral third of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula Insertion: deltoid tuberosity of humerus Action: primer mover of arm abduction

34 Triceps brachii Description: large fleshy muscle of posterior compartment of arm, 3 headed origin Origin: long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, lateral head: posterior shaft of humerus, medial head: posterior radial shaft distal to radial groove Insertion: common tendon to olecranon process of ulna Action: prime mover forearm extensor

35 Biceps brachii Description: 2 headed fusiform muscle, bellies unite as approaching insertion Origin: short head: corocoid process, long head: tubercle above the lip of glenoid cavity Insertion: by common tendon to radial tuberosity Action: flexes elbow joint and supinates forearm


37 Brachialis Description: strong muscle that is immediately deep to biceps on distal humerus Origin: front of distal humerus; embraces insertion of deltoid Insertion: coronoid process of ulna Action: major forearm flexor (lifts ulna as biceps lift radius)

38 Pronator teres Description: 2 headed muscle seen in superficial view between brachioradialis and flexor carpi radialis Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna Insertion: by common tendon to lateral radius, midshaft Action: pronates forearm, weak flexor of elbow

39 Brachioradialis Description: superficial muscle of lateral forearm, extend from distal humerus to distal forearm Origin: lateral supercondylar ridge at distal end of humerus Insertion: base of styloid process of radius Action: synergist in forearm flexion

40 Extensor carpi radialis longus
Description: Parallels brachioradialis on lateral forearm, and may blend with it Origin: lateral supercondylar ridge of humerus Insertion: base of 2nd metacarpal Action: extends wrist in conjunction with extensor carpi ulnaris and abducts wrist in conjunction with flexor carpi radialis

41 Flexor carpi radialis Description: runs diagonally across forearm, midway its fleshy belly is replaced by a flat tendon Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: base of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals Action: powerful flexor of wrist, abducts hand

42 Extensor carpi ulnaris
Description: most medial of superficial posterior muscles; long slender muscle Origin: lateral condyle of humerus and posterior border of ulna Insertion: base of 5th metacarpal Action: Extends wrist in conjunction with the extensor carpi radialis and adducts wrist in conjunctions with flexor carpi ulnaris

43 Palmaris longus Description: small fleshy muscle with a long insertion tendon Origin: medial epicondyle of humerus Insertion: palmar aponeurosis; skin and fascia of palm Action: weak wrist flexor; tenses skin and fascia of palm during hand movement

44 Extensor digitorum Description: lies medial to extensor carpi radialis brevis; a detached portion of this muscle, called extensor digiti minimi, extends the little finger Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: by four tendons into distal phalanges 2-5 Action: prime mover of finger extension; extends wrist, can abduct (flare) fingers


46 Iliopsoas Description: is a composite of two closely related muscles
Iliacus: large fan-shaped muscle (more lateral) origin: iliac fossa, crest, lateral sacrum Psoas major: longer thicker more medial muscle (tenderlion) origin: transverse process, disks, bodies of L1-5 and T12 Insertion: lesser trochanter of femur Action: prime mover of flexing thigh and trunk (bowing)

47 Pectineus Description: Short, flat muscle; overlies adductor brevis on proximal thigh Origin: pectineal line of pubis Insertion: inferior from lesser trochanter to linea aspera of posterior femur Action: adducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh

48 Tensor fasciae latae Description: enclosed between fascia layers of anterolateral aspect of thigh, associated with medial rotators and flexors of thigh Origin: anterior aspect of iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine Insertion: iliotibial tract Action: flexes and abducts thigh, rotates thigh medially; steadies the knee and trunk on thigh by tensing iliotibial tract

49 Sartorius Description: Strap-like, superficial muscle running obliquely across anterior surface of thigh to knee, longest muscle in the body; crosses both hip and knee Origin: anterior superior iliac spine Insertion: winds around medial aspect of knee into medial aspect of tibia Action: flexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh, weak flexor of knee, “tailors muscle”

50 Adductor longus Description: overlies middle aspect of adductor magnus, most anterior of adductor muscles Origin: pubis, near pubic symphysis Insertion: linea aspera Action: adducts, flexes and medially rotates thigh

51 Gracilis Description: long, thin, superficial muscle of medial thigh
Origin: inferior ramus and body of pubis and ischial ramus Insertion: medial surface of tibia, just inferior to its medial condyle Action: adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates thigh, especially during walking, flexes knee


53 Rectus femoris Description: superficial muscle of anterior thigh, runs straight down thigh, longest head and only muscle of group to cross the hip Origin: anterior inferior iliac spine and superior margin of acetabulum Insertion: patela and tibial tuberosity via the patellar ligament Action: extends knee and flexes thigh at hip

54 Vastus lateralis Description: largest head of the group, forms lateral aspect of thigh, common intramuscular injection site Origin: greater trochanter, linea aspera Insertion: patella and tibial tuberosity Action: extends and stabilizes knee

55 Vastus medialis Description: forms inferomedial aspect of thigh
Origin: linea aspera, intertrochanteric line Insertion: Patella, and tibial tuburosity Action: extends knee; inferior fibers stabilize patella


57 Iliotibial tract Description: The iliotibial tract, also known as the iliotibial band, is a thick strip of connective tissue connecting several muscles in the lateral thigh. Origin: arises at its proximal end from the tendons of the tensor fasciae latae and gluteus maximus muscles. Insertion: inserting on the lateral epicondyle of the tibia Action: It also allows the tensor fascia latae and gluteus maximus muscles to support the extension of the knee while standing, walking, running and biking.

58 Gluteus medius Description: thick muscle largely covered by gluteus maximus, site for intramuscular injection Origin: between anterior and posterior gleteal lines on lateral surface of ilium Insertion: lateral aspect of greater trochanter Action: abduct and medially rotates thigh, steadies pelvis, its action is extremely important in walking

59 Gluteus maximus Description: largest and most superficial muscle, forms bulk of buttock mass Origin: dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx Insertion: gluteal tuberosity of femur, iliotibial tract Action: major extensor of thigh, complex, powerful, and most effective when thigh is flexed and force is necessary


61 Adductor magnus Description: a triangular muscle with broad insertion, is a composite muscle that is part adductor and part hamstring in action Origin: ischial and pubic rami and ischial tuberosity Insertion: linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur Action: anterior part adducts and medially rotates thigh, posterior part is synergist to hamstrings in thigh extension

62 Biceps femoris (hamstrings)
Description: most lateral muscle of group, arises from two heads Origin: ischial tuberosity, linea aspera, and distal femur Insertion: head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia Action: Extends thigh and flexes knee, laterally rotates leg, especially when knee is flexed

63 Semitendinosus Description: lies medial to bicep femoris, it is quite fleshy, long slender tendon begins about 2/3 of way down thigh Origin: ischial tuberosity Insertion: medial aspect of upper tibial shaft Action: Extends thigh at hip, flexes knee, with semimembranosus, medially rotates leg

64 Semimembranosus Description: Deep to the semitendinosis
Origin: ischial tuberosity Insertion: medial condyle of tibia, via oblique popliteal ligament to lateral condyle of femur Action: extends thigh and flexes knee; medially rotates leg


66 Gastrocnemius Description: superficial muscle of pair, two prominent bellies that form proximal curve of calf Origin: by two heads from medial and lateral condyles of femur Insertion: posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Action: plantar flexes foot when knee is extended, It crosses the knee so it can flex the knee when foot is dorsiflexed

67 Soleus Description: broad, flat muscle, deep to the gastrocnemius on posterior surface of calf Origin: extensive origin from superior tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane Insertion: posterior calcaneus via calcaneal tendon Action: plantar flexes foot; important locomotor and postural muscle during walking, running and dancing

68 Fibularis longus (peroneus)
Description: superficial lateral muscle; overlies fibula Origin: upper portion of lateral fibula Insertion: by long tendon that curves under foot to first metatarsal and medial cuneiform Action: plantar flexes and everts foot; may help keep foot flat on ground


70 Calcaneal tendon Description: the tendon from the gastrocnemius muscle

71 Extensor digitorum longus
Description: unipennate muscle on anterolateral surface of leg; lateral to tibialis anterior Origin: lateral condyle of tibia, proximal ¾ of fibula, interosseous membrane Insertion: middle and distal phalanges of toes 2-5 Action: prime mover of toe extension ( acts mainly at metatarsophalangeal joints), dorsiflexes foot

72 Tibialis anterior Description: superficial muscle of anterior leg; laterally parallels sharp anterior margin of tibia Origin: lateral condyle of upper 2/3 of tibial shaft; interosseous membrane Insertion: inferior surface of medial cuneiform and first metatarsal Action: prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot, assists in supporting medial longitudinal arch


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