Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System Riley Embler Zoë Headley Amber Arneson Madison Miller."— Presentation transcript:
Skeletal System Riley Embler Zoë Headley Amber Arneson Madison Miller
Function Supports muscle structure Supports the bodies weight Protects vital organs (hearts, lungs, reproductive system, etc.) Stores nutrients within the marrow (calcium, fat cells, red/white blood cells)
Skeletal Regions Two parts: Axial and Appendicular Axial Skull Vertebral column Thoracic region Appendicular The shoulder girdle: Clavicle, scapula The Upper Extremities: Humerus, radius and ulna, carpals, metacarpals and phalanges The Pelvic Girdle: Coxal bones (Ilium, ischuim, pubis) Axial Skeleton (purple) Appendicular Skeleton (pink)
Protection Cranium (skull) - protects and houses the brain. Rib Cage – Protects the heart, lungs, liver, small intestates, pancreas, ext. Pelvis – Protects bladder and reproductive organs. Spine – Protects and supports the spinal cord. Scapular – Protects posterior heart and lungs.
Joints Joints -A point at which parts of an artificial structure are joined. They make the skeleton flexible — without them, movement would be impossible. Joint types: Ball & Socket (hip and fibular) Pivot (C1 & C2, This is the Cervical Vertebrae) Hinge (cubital) Plane (foot) Ellipsoid (wrist) Saddle (thumb and clavicle)
Joints Ball and Socket Pivot Hinge Saddle Ellipsoid Plane
Muscle Support/Body Weight Support Skeletal muscles : muscles that are attached to the bones. 1) Origin - attachment of muscle to the immobile part of the bones. 2) Insertion - is the attachment to the mobile part of the bone. Movement of the body is based on a principle of levers. 3 types of levers: First Lever Secondary Lever Third Lever. Lever: Is your bones Fulcrum: Your joints are the pivot point for the lever (bone). Force: Is the Muscle Contractions.
Marrow Marrow is a soft tissue that produces Red and white blood cells and is located inside the bones. Two types of bone marrow – Red (Medulla Ossium Rubra) and Yellow (Medulla Ossium Flava) Red Marrow Function: Creates Red blood cells, platelets, and some white blood cells. Yellow Marrow Function: Fatty marrow, produces cartilage and fat, used as a reserved energy source.
Nutrient Storage Calcium - It helps with clotting of blood, nerve electrical impulses and contraction of muscles. Calcium is stored as Hydroxapatite Crystals. Cells that regulate Calcium: Osteoblasts Osteoclasts
Bone Diseases and Disorders Brittle Bone – Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI); rare inherited disorder; caused by low production of collagen. Arthritis – A break-down of the smooth surface between bones; it irritates the sensitive bones by rubbing it away. Scoliosis – disorder of the backbone; generally, unevenly distributed weight causes the spinal column to overcompensate for the imbalance; causes spine to develop an “S” shape
Bone Diseases and Disorders(Examples) Arthritis Brittle BoneScoliosis
Osteoporosis Disease of the bones Maximum bone density not reached during adolescence More likely to develop later on in life Causes bones to become fragile, weak and prone to fracture Most common medical condition for women over the age of 50 Environmental factors Insufficient calcium Lack of Exercise Smoking Excessive consumption of alcohol
Interesting Facts Our bone is six times stronger than steel (proportionately) The smallest bone is in the ear, it’s called the Stapes. 206 bones in human body - 52 of them are in both feet Humans and giraffes have the same number of bones in their necks. Babies have 305 bones - Adults have 206
Interesting facts continued… The hyoid bone is the only bone in the body not connected to any other bone When you lift a glass of milk and take a sip, more than 30 joints move in your fingers, wrists, arm and shoulder. Milk accounts for approximately 60% of a teens calcium intake High calcium foods Sardines Salmon Broccoli Cooked Spinach Corn Tortillas Orange Juice
Citations WebMD University of Arizona Augusta Tech. (n.d.). Bones and Bone Tissue. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from Chapter 6 Objectives: http://www.augustatech.edu/anatomy/chapter%206.html Chandler, S. (n.d.). Skeletal System Fun Facts. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from eHow: http://www.ehow.com/about_5512809_skeletal-system- fun.html#ixzz24y3qUYcJ Feinberg, B. (1993). The Musculoskeletal System. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. Reader's Digest Association. (1987). ABC's of the Human Body. Reader's Digest Association Far East Ltd. Richards, M. (n.d.). The Skeletal System. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from Thinkquest: http://library.thinkquest.org/3007/skeletal.html Science Daily. (n.d.). Bone Marrow. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/b/bone_marrow.htm Think Quest. (2008). Fun Facts: Skeletal System. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from Think Quest: http://library.thinkquest.org/07aug/01618/funfacts.html