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Movement Terminology On whiteboards What are movement types, what do we call the motions at joints?

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Presentation on theme: "Movement Terminology On whiteboards What are movement types, what do we call the motions at joints?"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Movement Terminology

3 On whiteboards What are movement types, what do we call the motions at joints?

4 Activity 1 For the following joints write down the movement that can happen at that joint Wrist Radio-Ulna Elbow Shoulder Vertebrae Hip Knee Ankle

5 Wrist EXTENSION,PALMAR FLEXION Radio-Ulna PRONATION & SUPINATION. Elbow FLEXION & EXTENSION. Shoulder ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION, FLEXION, EXTENSION, ROTATION, CIRCUMDUCTION Vertebrae FLEXION,EXTENSION,LATERAL FLEXION Hip ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION, FLEXION, EXTENSION, ROTATION. Knee FLEXION & EXTENSION Ankle DORSI FLEXION & PLANTAR FELXION COMPLETE WS 1

6 Activity 2 What are the muscular contraction types? Using a Bicep curl explain the 3 main contraction types ? Isotonic (Concentric/Eccentric), Isometric and Isokinetic During the upward phase bicep brachii contracts and shortens and flexes elbow performing concentric contraction During downward phase bicep brachii under tension lengthens and extends elbow performing eccentric contraction If elbow held at 90* bicep under tension but no movement therefore isometric contraction

7 Complete WS 2/3, WS 12, WS 13

8 Module 2562 A.1.7 Physicaljointmovementagonisttype ofexercise activityusedpatternmusclemuscularto improve contraction strength(isotonic) LEG ACTIONankleplantarflexiongastrocnemius,eccentric,calf raise, IN SPRINTINGsoleus followed by plyometric concentric jumping exercises, hopping kneeflexion quadricepseccentricsquats, jumping followed bygroupfollowed by upwards onto boxesextensionconcentric (KNEE LIFT)hipflexionrectusconcentricpike sit-ups, V-sits abdominus, iliopsoas (REAR LEGhipextensiongluteus concentricback hyperextension DRIVE)maximus THIS SEQUENCE COVERS ONE FULL STRIDE FOR ONE LEG MOVEMENT ANALYSIS of a SPORTING ACTION

9 Skeletal Muscle Using IS 1 highlight the key words and add to you key words glossary

10 Muscle fibre types Can you recall the types of muscles fibres? What is the factor that causes us to have a mixture of muscle fibre types? TYPE 1 – SLOW OXIADATIVE TYPE IIA – FAST OXIADATIVE TYPE IIB – FAST GLYCOLYTIC GENETICS

11 Muscle fibre types COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE: CHARACTERISTICTYPE 1TYPE IIATYPE IIB Contraction speedslowfastfast Motor neurone sizesmalllarge Force productionlowhigh Fatigabilitylower durationvery high Mitochondriahighlower Myoglobinlowerlow Glycogen storelowhigh Aerobic capacitymediumlow Anaerobic capacitymedium

12 COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TABLE: CHARACTERISTICTYPE 1TYPE IIATYPE IIB Contraction speedslowfastfast Motor neurone sizesmalllargelarge Force productionlowhighhigh Fatigabilitylong durationlower durationvery high Mitochondriahighlowerlow Myoglobinhighlowerlow Glycogen storelowmediumhigh Aerobic capacityhighmediumlow Anaerobic capacitylowmediumhigh

13 Effects of training on muscle fibres You can increase the size of muscle fibres Increase in size is ‘HYPERTROPHY’ In Hypertrophy increased quantity and size of myofibrils per fibre

14 STRUCTURE of a SARCOMERE the Z lines are the ends of the sarcomere which are attached to actin filaments which comprise the I zone of the relaxed unit the myosin filaments lie in between actin filaments which they just overlap (relaxed) the H zone is the space between the ends of the actin filaments CONTRACTION during contraction the cross-bridges between the myosin and actin filaments pull them towards one another this increases the overlap and pulls the Z lines towards one another

15 Sliding filament theory demo

16 Module 2562 A.1.15 MOTOR NEURONE STRUCTURE CELL BODY includes nucleus and cytoplasm membrane is receptive to stimuli from other neurones DENDRITES highly branched processes which extend out from the cell body specialised to receive stimuli from sensory organs or from other neurones AXON conducts nerve impulses to other cells (nerve, muscle, gland cells) special structures include : –myelin sheath insulates nerve –nodes of Ranvier are gaps in myelin sheath where action potential jumps from node to node –axon terminal ends with synaptic end bulbs containing neurotransmitter substances –enabling action potential to be applied to adjacent cells

17 Motor Unit demo

18 FIBRE TYPE and EXERCISE RECRUITMENT based on intensity of exercise at low intensity ST motor units recruited first RESPONSES TO TRAINING endurance training results in type IIb being converted to type IIa endurance training increases the aerobic capacity of ST fibres explains why long steady training results in loss of speed high intensity anaerobic training causes increase in size of FT fibres (hypertrophy), and number of FT fibres (hyperplasia) lack of training causes atrophy at higher intensity FO FT IIa motor units recruited at greatest intensity FG FT IIb motor units recruited to produce powerful fast musclecontractions all available fibres are recruited for all power activities

19 FIBRE TYPE RANGE IN SPORTS PERFORMERS activityaverage % STrange of % ST MALES marathon cross country skiers cyclists m runners untrained shot putters sprinters FEMALES cross country skiers cyclists m runners untrained shot putters sprinters – proportions of fibre types are genetically determined – this could account for specialisms of individuals

20 1.Which fibre type? Marathon Distance swimmer Basketball Endurance cyclist Long jump Sprinter 2.What difference is there between male and female performers in these sports in terms of fibre types? 3.Will a 40 year old runner have different fibre types from when they were 20 4.Why is a warm up important regards to fibre types? 5.How can you adapt training sessions so that you just overload either slow or fast firbers? 6.What is the sliding filament theory?


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