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Lauren Dawson & Gabrielle Kosziwka

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1 Lauren Dawson & Gabrielle Kosziwka

2 Lecture Overview Use of anthropometric measurements
Direct Measurements Height (Standing and Sitting) Weight (mass) Head Circumference Mid-Upper Arm Circumference Waist to Hip Circumference Skinfold Measurements Triceps skin-fold Computational Approach (2D & 3D) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

3 What is Anthropometry? The theory of anthropometrics comes from the study of anthropology and is derived from greek ‘anthropo’ meaning human and ‘metron’ meaning measure It is the measurement of the human anatomy in terms of the dimensions of the bone, muscle and adipose tissue (CDC, 1988) Anthopology is used for determining a persons size, form, and functional capabilities G Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

4 Use of Anthropometric measurements
Forensics and Criminology Use anthropometry as a form of identity analysis through skeletal measurements to determine biological facts such as age, race and gender (Reichs, 1988). Ergonomics Make more functional work spaces Create safe machinery and protective equipment Biometrics Security surveillance used to describe individuals (Hong, 2000) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

5 Direct Measurements Direct measurements are used to describe the dimensions of the body. Age is a key factor in determining which anthropometric measures are appropriate to use Age groups are 2mo+, 2yr+, 4yr+, 20yr+, and 60+ G (CDC, 1988) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

6 Body Measurements by Age
2mo+ 2yr+ 4yr+ 20yr+ 60yr+ Weight Recumbent length (2mo-3yr) Triceps skinfold Subscapular skinfold Upper arm length Arm circumference Head circumference (to 6mo*) Stature Sitting height Recumbent length (To 3yr*) Waist circumference Upper leg length Thigh circumference Buttocks circumference Suprailliac skinfold Thigh skinfold Biilliac breadth Elbow breadth Wrist breadth Biacromial breadth Knee Height Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1988 and 2007)

7 Direct Measurements-Standing Height
Subject must be standing with weight distributed on both feet with heels touching the base of the vertical board Instruct patient to: Look straight ahead Relax shoulders Arms at sides Legs straight Feet flat and heels almost touching Head kept in Frankfurt plane Measurement is taken from crown to floor to nearest mm Position for Standing Height (CDC, 1988) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

8 Direct Measurements-Sitting Height
Sitting measurements are taken by having the patient sit on a measurement box. The back and buttocks need to be against the backboard of the statiometer with knees straight ahead and hands resting on the sides Measurement is taken from the crown of the head to the measurement box to nearest mm. (CDC, 2007) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

9 Direct Measurement- Recumbent Length
This technique is used for infants aged 2mo to 3yrs. Infants are placed supine on the measuring board. The board measures from the crown to the heels of the child The measurement is taken to the nearest 0.1cm Infant being measured on an infantometer (CDC, 1988) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

10 Direct Measurement- Weight
Basic weight measurements can be done using a scale in which the patient stands barefoot with minimal clothing. Arms placed at sides Weight evenly placed between both feet Palms facing thighs Measurement is taken to nearest 0.1kg Other weight measurement techniques include under water weighing and body imaging. However the cost is much greater financially (CDC, 1988) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

11 Direct Measurement- Head Circumference
Head circumference is measured in infants up to 6 months as a predictor of disease and genetic abnormalities Measurement technique flexible non-stretchable tape Take out all clips, braids, etc. Measure across the frontal bones of the skull slightly above eyebrows and ears and around the occipital prominence at the back of the head. Find largest circumference, measure to closest 0.1cm Flatten out the hair Repeat the measurements twice for accuracy and record to the closest mm. (CDC, 2007) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

12 Mid-Upper Arm Circumference
Used on patients 2 months and older Measurement technique: Surface of arm at the upper arm mid-point mark Take measurement from lateral side Measure to the nearest 0.1cm Practical use for this data is to determine the appropriate sizes for blood pressure cuffs (CDC, 2007) (CDC, 2007) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

13 Direct Measurements- Waist Circumference
This measurement has been shown to be correlated with many health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and heart conditions Measurement Technique: Measure horizontally around waist Tape must sit parallel to floor Do not compress skin Take measurement to closest 0.1cm (CDC, 2007) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

14 Direct Measurements- Skinfold Technique
Skinfold measurements are used to determine the amount of adipose tissue at multiple sites of the body (CDC, 2007) Measurement Techniques: Mark spots to be measured Grasp skin 2cm above marking with thumb and index finger Pull skinfold away from body to release muscle Place calipers perpendicular to the skinfold and wait for 3 seconds before reading measurement Read at eye level to nearest 0.1mm (CDC, 2007) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

15 Direct Measurements- Skinfold Sites
Skinfold Sites include: triceps, subscapular, suprailliac, thigh Video shows 3 of 4 of these sites, notice the set of calipers and the techniques used to obtain the values. The purpose of these measurements is to establish an understanding of a patients body fat percentage (CDC, 2007) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

16 Direct Measurements- Breath
Breadth measurements are taken to nearest 0.1cm at 4 sites which include: biilliac, biacromial, elbow, and wrist Biiliac: with patient sitting, measure between lateral borders of iliac crest (the highest point of crest) Biacromial: with patient sitting, maximal breadth across the lateral boarders of the acromial processes Only over 4 years (CDC, 1988) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

17 Direct Measurements- Breath cont’d
Elbow: patient standing, right arm perpendicular to body, flex elbows to 90 degrees with posterior wrist facing out. Measurements are taken at a 45 degree angle across the greatest breadth between epicondyles Wrist: patient standing with extended right arm. Measurement is taken by the most prominent part of the ulnar and radial styloid process. Only over 4 years (CDC, 1988) Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

18 New Methodology Direct measurements are useful and cost-effective
However… Observer subjectivity and not perfectly reproducible Not perfectly accurate Physical contact is necessary So… New techniques were developed More accurate and reproducible Physical contact is unnecessary Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory

19 2D Anthropometry 2-Dimensional digital picture.
Against a background with calibration criteria Computer software extracts silhouette Software identifies landmarks (either automated or manual) Software uses landmarks to calculate segment lengths (Lin, et al. 2011) Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory

20 2D Anthropometry Potential difficulties
Calibration. If initial measurement is not accurate, no analyzed measurement will be accurate Landmark detection Posture. Calculations are based of only 2 dimensions so the software will not pick up on any point in the 3rd dimension. (eg, slight bend in arm) Clothing. Alters accuracy (Kohlschütter et al., 2012) Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory

21 3D Anthropometry
L- Reference for second point Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

22 3D Anthropometry Applications: Functional anthropometry Motion capture
Medical and fitness management Body composition Understanding body shape Postural intervention 3-Dimentional equipment design Apparel industry One size does not fit all Video games, movies Avatar creation (Lu, et al. 2008) Lauren- Plyometric Training in Female Athletes Decreased Impact Forces and Increased Hamstring Torques, Hewett TE by measuring muscle peak torque ratios Alterations to movement mechanics can greatly reduce anterior cruciate ligament loading without reducing performance Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

23 3D Anthropometry-Body Shape
How it works: Project straight line grids onto the human body Curves in the body result in distortions to the grid Cameras capture the distortions and compute the 3-dimentional shape of the human body In a full body scan, several hundred thousand points are produced, each with a x,y,z coordinate. Automated landmarking Coordinates can be fused together digitally to create polygonal meshes. (Simmonds, et al. 2003) L Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

24 3D Anthropometry-Body Volumes
Variety of programs Biomechanics requires known limb volumes to calculate moments of inertia, power etc… Fluid immersion is a technique used to estimate these values A 3D body scan can add precision to this measurement by calculating cross-sectional areas and volumes. A measure of whole body volume and density can be used to estimate percentage of body fat (Rogers, et al. 2004) G Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

25 Advantages/Limitations
Accurate Reproducible Limitations: Expensive- cameras, software, Extensive set up compared to direct measurments G Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

26 References 1. Reichs KJ, Bass WM. Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification. of Human Remains (2nd Edition). Springfield, Illinois, U.S.A. Charles C. Thomas Pub Ltd, 1998. 2. Jain, A., Hong, L., & Pankanti, S. (2000). "Biometric Identification". Communications of the ACM, 43(2), p  doi: / 3. Centre of Disease Control. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III: Body Measurements (Anthropometry). 1988 4. Centre of Disease Control. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III: Anthropometry Procedure Manual. 2007 5. Rogers, M and Olds, T. 3D anthropometry - applications to health and exercise science [online]. Sport Health, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2004 Spring: Availability: <;dn= ;res=IELHEA> ISSN: [cited 27 Oct 14]. 6. Lin, Y.L., Wang, M.J.: Automated body feature extraction from 2D images. Expert Systems with Applications 38, 2585–2591 (2011) Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory

27 References 7. Simmons, K.P., Istook, C.L.: Body measurement techniques: A comparison of three-dimensional body scanning and physical anthropometric methods for apparel application. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 7(3), 306–332 (2003) 8. American Standards for Testing and Materials (ASTM). (2009). Standard terminology relating to body dimensions for apparel sizing. (Vol , Designation: D ). 9. Kohlschütter T., Herout P. (2012). Automatic Human Body Parts Detection in a 2D Anthropometric System. Proceedings of ISVC 2012, Part II, LNCS 7432, pp 10. Lu, J.-M., Wang, M.-J. J. (2008). Automated anthropometric data collection using 3D whole body scanners. Expert Systems with Applications, 35(1–2), pp. 407–414. Neurotrauma Impact Science Laboratory

28 Thank You S Human Movement Biomechanics Laboratory

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