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Chapter 16 Injuries to the Upper Extremities. 2 Upper Extremity Injuries Upper extremities are vulnerable to a variety of injuries depending on the sport,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Injuries to the Upper Extremities. 2 Upper Extremity Injuries Upper extremities are vulnerable to a variety of injuries depending on the sport,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Injuries to the Upper Extremities

2 2 Upper Extremity Injuries Upper extremities are vulnerable to a variety of injuries depending on the sport, including: –Sprains –Strains –Dislocations –Fractures

3 3 Upper Extremity Injuries Upper extremities are vulnerable to a variety of injuries depending on the sport, including: –Separations to the thoracic cage, shoulder, arm, and hand –Repetitive motion injuries such as arthritis, bursitis, tendonitis

4 4 Shoulder Complex Physiology Bones Muscles Ligaments Tendons Articulations

5 5 Assessing Shoulder Injuries ROM test for external rotation of the shoulder ROM test for internal rotation of the shoulder

6 6 Assessing Shoulder Injuries Specific ROM tests for the shoulder including abduction, flexion, extension, horizontal adduction External muscle tests for the shoulder

7 7 Assessing Shoulder Injuries Internal rotation strength test for the shoulder Extension strength test for the shoulder Flexion strength test for the shoulder Abduction and adduction strength tests for the shoulder Empty can test

8 8 Types of Shoulder Injuries Fractures –Perform percussion test, compression test Dislocations and subluxations Contusions

9 9 Types of Shoulder Injuries Sprains –Sulcus test, apprehension test for sprain of the anterior capsule –Acromioclavicular (AC) sprain test –Sternoclavicular (SC) sprain test

10 10 Types of Shoulder Injuries Strains –Drop arm test Impingement –Hawkins-Kennedy test, winged scapula test

11 11 Types of Shoulder Injuries Tendonitis –Speed’s test Synovitis and bursitis

12 12 Assessing Elbow and Forearm Injuries Methods to assess elbow and forearm injuries include: –ROM test for elbow flexion –ROM test for elbow extension –ROM test for elbow supination –ROM test for elbow pronation

13 13 Manual Muscle Tests for the Elbow Flexion strength test Extension strength test Supination strength test Pronation strength test

14 14 Injuries to the Elbow and Arm Fractures Dislocations and subluxations Contusions Sprains –Valgus stress test for the elbow –Varus stress test for the elbow

15 15 Injuries to the Elbow and Arm Impingement –Tinel’s sign Synovitis and bursitis Biceps brachii rupture Epicondylitis Volkmann’s contracture

16 16 Physiology of the Wrist and Hand Made up of eight bones –Carpals, arranged in two transverse rows Five metacarpals and digits make up the hand

17 17 Assessing Wrist and Hand Injuries ROM test for wrist flexion ROM test for wrist extension ROM test for finger flexion

18 18 Assessing Wrist and Hand Injuries ROM test for finger extension manual muscle tests: –Extension strength test –Flexion strength test for the wrist –Radial deviation strength test for the wrist –Ulnar deviation strength test for the wrist –Extension strength test for the fingers

19 19 Assessing Wrist and Hand Injuries ROM test for finger extension manual muscle tests: –Flexion strength test for the fingers –Abduction strength test for the fingers –Adduction strength test for the fingers

20 20 Injuries to the Wrist and Hand Fractures Dislocations and subluxations Contusions Sprains –Gamekeeper’s thumb test Impingement

21 21 Injuries to the Wrist and Hand Tendonitis Ganglion cyst of the wrist Mallet finger Buttonhold deformity


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