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SECTA Sports Medicine.  Bones  humerus  ulna  radius  Ligaments  ulnar collateral lig.  annular lig.  radial collateral lig.

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Presentation on theme: "SECTA Sports Medicine.  Bones  humerus  ulna  radius  Ligaments  ulnar collateral lig.  annular lig.  radial collateral lig."— Presentation transcript:

1 SECTA Sports Medicine

2  Bones  humerus  ulna  radius  Ligaments  ulnar collateral lig.  annular lig.  radial collateral lig.

3  Muscles  triceps brachii  biceps brachii  brachialis  Anconeus (posterior)  brachioradialis

4  Common injuries of the elbow:  Contusions  Sprains/Strains  Dislocations  Fractures  Nerve Injuries  Epicondylitis  Volkmann’s Contracture

5  Contusions  Common  Caused by a direct blow  Bleeding & bruising  Treatment  RICE  Protective Padding

6 NORMAL SKINCONTUSION

7  Sprains  Commonly result from forced hyperextension or side to side forces  “click” or “pop” sound with sharp pain  Localized swelling & pain  Arm will be held in a flexed position  Treatment  RICE  Use of a specialty brace may be suggested

8  Strain  Result from the high amounts of stress place on the elbow  Acute  Sudden overload  Chronic  Continued overuse  Treatment  RICE  Use of a specialty brace may be suggested

9  Dislocation  The 2 nd most frequently dislocated major joint  Most common- posterior displacement of the ulna  Results from a fall on an outstretched hand with the elbow hyperextended

10  Signs & Symptoms  If displaced- obvious deformity  Loss of function  Considerable pain

11  Treatment  Properly immobilized  Transport to the athlete’s physician or the nearest medical facility

12  Fractures  Caused by direct trauma, indirect stress (falling), excessive forces (throwing)  Most common in children or skeletally immature athletes  Many involve the growth plate (epiphysis)

13  Signs & Symptoms  Point tenderness  Swelling  Limited range of motion  Disability at the elbow or hand  Increased pain at the fracture site when attempting movement Olecranon Process Fracture

14  Treatment  Immobilization  Ice  Elevation  Immediate referral to medical facility

15  Nerve Injuries  Not as common as musculoskeletal injuries  Ulnar Nerve Contusion  Cubital Tunnel Syndrome  Radial Tunnel Syndrome  Pronator Teres Syndrome

16  Ulnar Nerve Contusion  Blow or contusion to the ulnar nerve (funny bone)  Immediate pain & burning sensation shooting down the forearm to the ring and little fingers  Depending on the severity of the blow the pain may last from a few minutes to a longer period of time

17  Cubital Tunnel Syndrome  Ulnar nerve becomes trapped and compressed in the cubital tunnel (posterior aspect of the medial epicondyle groove)  Due to repetitive movement (throwing or swimming)  Signs & Symptoms  Pain along inner aspect of the elbow  Tenderness over medial epicondylar groove  Paresthesia in distrubution of ulnar nerve in the hand

18  Radial Tunnel Syndrome  Radial nerve becomes trapped during activities requiring repetitive pronation and supination of the forearm  Sign & Symptoms  Pain over lateral aspect of the elbow  Tenderness over anterior radial head

19  Pronator Teres Syndrome  Median nerve becomes trapped or compressed due to hypertrophy of pronator teres or repetitive pronation of the forearm  Signs & Symptoms  Pain radiating down the anterior forearm  Numbness, tingling in the thumb, index and middle fingers

20  Epicondylitis  Chronic strain of the medial or lateral epicondyle  Caused by faulty mechanics or techniques, weak muscle groups, inappropriate equipment  Tennis Elbow  Commonly given to pain on the lateral side of the elbow  Golfer’s Elbow  Commonly given to pain on the medial side of the elbow  Pitcher’s Elbow, Bowler’s Elbow, Javelin Thrower’s Elbow

21  Signs & Symptoms  Local tenderness over epicondyle  Pain with the use of the involved muscle  Possible swelling  Treatment  Preventive: proper equipment, proper technique, limited stress  Proper warm up and stretch  RICE  Modified activities

22  Volkmann’s Contracture  Absence of blood flow (ischemia) to the forearm  From swelling, fracture, burns, excessive exercise, injections in the forearm, animal bites  Muscles on the palm side of the forearm shorten  Causes the fingers to form a fist and flex toward the wrist  Mild, Moderate, Severe

23  Signs & Symptoms  Severe pain when muscle is passively moved  Swollen  Shiny  Pain when forearm is squeezed  Pain gets worse with time  Decreased sensation  Weakness  Paleness of the skin

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25  Bones  Ulna  Radius  Carpals  Metacarpals  Phalanges

26  Muscles  Hand  Supinator  Pronator teres  Pronator quadratus  Thumb  Flexor pollicis longus  Flexor pollicis brevis  Extensor pollicis longus  Extensor pollicis brevis  Adductor pollicis  Abductor pollicis longus  Abductor pollicis brevis  Opponens pollicis  Fingers  Flexor digitorum profundus  Flexor digiti mimimi brevis  Interossei dorsalis  Flexor digitorum superficialis  Extensor indicis  Interossei palmaris  Abductor digiti minimi  Oppenens digiti minimi  Extensor digitorum communis

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29  Fractures  Boxer’s Fracture  Baseball (Mallet) Finger  Jersey Finger  Scaphoid Fracture  Colles’s Fracture

30  Boxer’s Fracture  A break in the 5 th metacarpal leading to the little finger  Caused by slamming a clenched fist against a solid object

31  Baseball (mallet) Finger  Caused by an object hitting the tip of the finger  Finger is bent beyond its normal range of motion  The finger tendon is torn and cartilage is damaged

32 FINGER TENDON IS TORN DUE TO OVER FLEXION DAMAGE TO SURROUNDING TISSUE DUE TO OVER FLEXION AND FORCE OF IMPACT

33  Treatment  RICE  Support  Evaluation by physician

34  Jersey Finger  Tearing of the flexor tendon to the fingertip  Usually caused during a tackle  Most often affects the ring finger

35 INABILITY TO FLEX FINGER TREATMENT CONSISTS OF SURGERY TO REATTACH TENDON

36  Scaphoid Fracture  Most commonly fractured bone in athletics  Caused by a fall on an outstretched hand  Palpation at the anatomical snuffbox will cause pain

37  Colles’s Fracture  Common fracture of the lower radius just above the wrist

38 CAUSED BY FALLING ON AN OUTSTRETCHED HAND AND THE WRIST ABSORBS THE FORCE OF IMPACT TREATMENT OFTEN REQUIRES SURGERY WITH HARDWARE

39  Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  Anatomy:  The carpal tunnel is a passageway that run from the forearm through the wrist  Bones form the walls and a ligament bridges over them  The median nerve and 9 tendons pass through the tunnel

40  Causes:  Inflammation disorder caused by: repetitive stress, physical injury, or other conditions that caused tissues to swell  Inflammation of the protective linings of the tendons  Thickening & broadening of the ligament that forms the roof of the tunnel  High force  Repetition  Awkward joint posture  Direct pressure  Vibration  Prolonged constrained posture  Dislocation  Fractures  Rheumatoid arthritis  Diabetes  Hypothyroidism

41  Signs & Symptoms  Pain  Numbness  Tingling  Weakness- drop things  Loss of heat/cold sensation  Feeling of swollen hands though there is no swelling  Symptoms may occur at rest as well as during use

42  Treatment  Rest for at least 2 weeks  Ice  Splint or brace b  No real evidence they work  Some believe they make the problem worse  Surgery

43  Ganglion Cyst  Small, hard lump above a tendon or in the capsule that encloses a joint  Also known as synovial hernia or synovial cyst

44  Common condition for:  Bowlers  Handball players  Racquetball players  Squash players  Tennis players

45  A ganglion can also appear:  Palm side of the wrist  Base of the fingers  Feet  Treatment  Small cysts need not be treated

46  Boutonnière Deformity  A tear or slip of the extensor tendon of the proximal interphalangeal joint and the distal interphalangeal joint

47  Causes:  Finger is bent or hit forcibly  Jammed finger  Signs & Symptoms  Joints will be painful and tender  Unable to straighten finger

48  Treatment  Treatment must be relatively quick to be effective  If not treated tissues will lose their elasticity- making it difficult for them to return to normal


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