Presentation on theme: "Skeletal System. Objectives List 5 functions of the bone. Know the 2 divisions of the skeletal system Compare the 3 classifications of joints. Give one."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives List 5 functions of the bone. Know the 2 divisions of the skeletal system Compare the 3 classifications of joints. Give one example of each joint classification. Name the 5 types of bones and give an example of each. Id the different bones of the body.
History In 1543 Andreas Vesalius the Flemish anatomist discovered that in order to treat illness the structure of the body must be understood, so he published a book describing his theory. He studied the bones of animals, and executed criminals. He later stole bodies from graves to study.
Skeletal System There are over 300 bones in the newborn, but only 206 in the adult. By age 20 bones are fused. Bones consist mainly osseous connective tissue. The chief organic constituent of bone is collagen (protein) and inorganic calcium salts.
Cntd. Skeletal System Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium which is a fat soluble vitamin dependent on proper fat metabolism. Mechanical Stress aids in bone formation. Therefore exercise and diet influences bone formation.
trivia If you removed all the minerals from a long bone you would tie the bone in a knot
Purposes of the Skeletal System Supporting Framework Protects the viscera (organs) Provides a place for muscle attachment Mineral storage Red bone marrow forms RBC’s and some WBC’s
5 Types of Bones Long bones: femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna, and phalanges Short bones: carpals and tarsals Flat bones: cranial bones, ribs and scapula Irregular: vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx and mandible Sesamoid: patella
Red Bone Marrow Red bone marrow is found in the cancellous bone of the vertebrae, hips, sternum, ribs, cranial bones, and the proximal ends of the femur and humorous. Red bone marrow forms RBS’s, some WBC’s and platelets
trivia The bone marrow makes 173 million new cells a day
The skeletal is divided into 2 main parts. Appendicular: 126 bones Axial: 80 bones Appendicular: shoulders, upper and lower extremities and pelvis Axial: skull, thorax, and vertebral column
Bone Makeup The long shaft is called the diaphysis and the 2 extremities are called epiphysis. Medullary canal: cavity in the diaphysis. It is filled with yellow marrow which is mainly fat cells. Endosteum: membrane that lines the canal and keeps the yellow marrow intact.
Cntd. Bone Makeup Periosteum: tough fibrous membrane that covers and protects the bone. Red marrow found in the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, cranium, and the proximal end of the humorous and femur.
trivia Tibetan priest used to use human skulls as drinking cups The average skull hold 1.5 liters
Axial: skull: 8 bones 1 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, 1 ethmoid, 1 sphenoid Frontal: in the frontal region. Forms the forehead and the roof of the orbits of the eye. This bone contains the frontal sinus (air spaces filled with mucous membrane) secretions from these sinuses drain into the nose.
The 2 parietal bones forms the roof and sides of the head. The occipital bone is at the base of the skull. There is an opening in the opening in the occipital bone called the foremen magnum through which the spinal cord meets with the brain.
2 temporal bones: located I the temporal area. 1 Ethmoid bone: a small bone which forms the upper part of the bony nasal septum. The ethmoid contains sinus which drain into the nose.
Sphenoid bone: located posterior to the ethmoid. At birth the fontanels are not closed. The bones are fused by 2 years of age. Sinuses: air spaces in the bones of the skull that act as resonating chambers for the voice.
The Appendicular Skeleton The shoulder griddle is made of the 2 scapulas and 2 clavicles. The scapula provides attachment of the upper arm bones.
trivia The clavicle is the most common fractured bone
trivia Football players have more injuries than all other sports. Knee injuries are the most common
ARMS The upper arm is humerus. The lower arm is the radius and ulna. 8 carpals= wrist 5 metacarpals= palm of the hand 14 phalanges= fingers and thumb
trivia Knuckle popping: can only be done every 20 minutes. Cause: gas bubbles in the joint. Stretching the joint causes the popping sound
trivia Fingers are different sizes What happens when you make your hand in a claw to pick up something?
They become the same size
The pelvic griddle is made of sacrum and the coccyx posteriorly and unites in the front and forms the symphysis pubis
Joints Joints: 2 or more bones join together. Ligaments: hold the bones together at the joints. Joints are classification: Ball and socket=shoulder or hip Hinge joints=elbow/knee Slightly moveable=vertebrae Immovable=cranium
Spinal Column The spinal column is made of 26 bones called vertebrae. These bones protect the spinal cord and provide support for head and trunk. They include: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx Respiratory: c-1 Quad c-6
Pads of cartilage tissue called intervertebral disks separate the vertebrae. The disks act as shock absorbers and permits bending and twisting movements of the vertebral column.
There are 12 pairs of ribs. They attach to the thoracic vertebrae on the dorsal surface of the body. The first 7 pairs are called true ribs because they attach directly to the sternum on the front of the body.
The next 5 pairs are called false ribs. The 1 st 3 pairs attach to the cartilage of the rib above. The last 2 pairs of the false ribs are called floating ribs because they are not attached to the front of the body.
The Sternum: The sternum is divided in 3 parts. The top part is called the manubrium, The body and the xiphoid process. The clavicle or collar bone: is attached to the manubrium by ligaments.
Types of Joints 1. Fibrous: (immovable) includes the bones of the cranium 2. Cartilaginous: (slightly moveable) includes the vertebra in the spine 3. Synovial: (freely moveable) includes the elbow, knee, fingers, etc…
Motion Groups For Joints
Ball & Socket A round end of one bone fits into a cup-like end of another bone, allows a wide range of movement. The shoulder and hips are examples of ball and socket.
Pivot A protection fits through a ring made up of bone and ligament, allowing only pivoting movement. The first and second cervical vertebrae (the atlas and the axis) are pivot joints.
Hinge A joint in which the two surfaces, one convex and the other concave, fit together. A saddle joint can be found in the thumb.
Saddle A joint in which two surfaces, one convex and other concave, fit together. A saddle joint can be found in your thumb.
Condyloid (Ellipsoid) A rounded or oval end of a bone fits into an oval cavity, allowing all types of movements except pivoting. One of the wrist joints is a condyloid joint.
Gliding Two facing bone surfaces meet, allowing only gliding movements. Motion is limited by surrounding tissues and ligaments. The wrist and ankles contain examples of gliding joints.
Diseases of the Skeletal System
Arthritis A group of diseases involving inflammation of the joints. Main Types: Osteoarthritis-chronic, aging Rheumatoid Arthritis-Hips & Knees
Cntd. Arthritis Inflammation of connective tissue and joints Female > Male onset Atrophy bones
Cntd. Arthritis Symptoms: joint pain, stiffness, limited range or motion Treatment: aspirin, rest, anti-inflammatory medications, injections of steroids into joints, special exercises, surgery for replacement or joints sometimes necessary.
Osteoporosis Increased porosity of bones, metabolic disorder caused by: Hormone deficiency Prolong lack of calcium in diet Sedentary lifestyle Bones become brittle and prone to fracture
Kyphosis (Hunchback) Scoliosis and lordosis(swayback) Abnormal curvature of the spinal column Causes: Poor posture, structural defect, malnutrition, degeneration of the vertebra. Treatment: Exercises, firm mattresses, braces, surgical repair.
Dislocation Bone displaced from the joint (shoulder, fingers, knee, hips) Dislocation is reduced (bone is replaced in the joint). Afterward requires immobilization with splint, cast or traction.
Sprain Twisting action tears the ligaments at a joint. Symptoms: pain swelling, discoloration, limited motion Treatment: rest, elevation, cold application, bandage or splint
Osteomyelitis Infection in the bone, causes abscess in the bone, pus formation. Symptoms: pain in site fever, chills, swelling Treatment: antibiotics
Bursitis Inflammation of the bursae, small fluid filled sacs surrounding the joint. (shoulder, elbows, hips, or knees) Symptoms: pain, limited motion, increased fluid in joint Treatment: Fluid Aspiration, pain medications, injection-steroids & anesthetics
Fractures Crack or break in a bone Crack: greenstick fracture Break w/ no skin damage: simple fracture Break in pieces: compound fracture Splintered/crushed: comminuted fracture
Reduction of a fracture is the process of proper alignment of the bone. Closed (traction) reduction Open (surgical repair) reduction
Carpal tunnel syndrome When a branch of the median nerve in the forearm is compressed as the wrist as it passes through the tunnel formed by the wrist bones and a ligament that lies under the skin. Symptoms are numbness and tingling in the thumb and 1 st 2 fingers
Marfans syndrome Abraham Lincoln had this disease which causes abnormally long bones It is a rare genetic disorder of connective tissue. It causes scoliosis, eye problems, heart disease, and scarce adipose tissue