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Muscle System Ch. 10. Four functional groups of muscle: Four functional groups of muscle: 1- prime movers (agonists): Muscle that bears the prime responsibility.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscle System Ch. 10. Four functional groups of muscle: Four functional groups of muscle: 1- prime movers (agonists): Muscle that bears the prime responsibility."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscle System Ch. 10

2 Four functional groups of muscle: Four functional groups of muscle: 1- prime movers (agonists): Muscle that bears the prime responsibility for effecting a movement 2- antagonist: Muscle that opposes the action of another muscle. 3- synergists: these muscles act as stabilizers to the prime movers. They may also contribute extra force to the prime mover as well. 4- fixator: muscle that immobilizes one or more bones (scapula)

3 Muscle are classified according to their fascicular arrangement or attachment. Muscle are classified according to their fascicular arrangement or attachment. Parallel - long axis of fascicle runs with longitudinal axis of muscle: sartorius muscle Pennate - fascicle branch form central tendon diagonally Unipennate - extensor muscles Unipennate - extensor muscles Bipennate - rectus femoris Bipennate - rectus femoris Multipennate - deltoid Multipennate - deltoid Convergent - fascicle converge toward a single tendon: pectoralis major Circular - fascicle are arranged in concentric rings Orbicularis oris and oculi

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5 Types of muscle attachments: direct and indirect Types of muscle attachments: direct and indirect Direct (tendon) - epimysium of muscle fused to periosteum of bone or perichondrium of cartilage. Indirect (aponeurosis) - muscle fascia extends beyond the muscle to bone or another muscle. Latissimus dorsi or galea aponeurotica

6 Muscle have points of attachment on the skeleton via tendons or aponeurosis Origin and insertion Origin: end of the muscle attaches to the stationary bone (non-moveable) Insertion: end of muscle attaches to the moving bone Biceps (two heads) have two origins on the scapula Biceps inserts on the radius (crosses elbow joint)

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10 Muscle list Muscle list 1- Frontalis: O: galea aponeurotica I: skin of eyebrows N: Facial nerve (CN VII) A: raises eyebrows 2- Orbicularis oculi: O: frontal bone I: tissues of eyelid N: Facial nerve A: closes eyes

11 3- Temporalis: O: temporal fossa I: coronoid process of mandible N: Trigeminal nerve (CN V) A: closes jaw (muscle of mastication) 4- Orbicularis oris O: indirectly from maxilla and mandible I: encircles mouth N: Facial nerve A: puckers lips (kissing and whistling)

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13 5- Platysma: O: subcutaneous skin over delto-pectoral region I: skin widely over the mandible A: depress mandible and lower lip tenses the skin over the lower neck tenses the skin over the lower neck N: facial nerve 6- Scalenes: located deep in the neck anteriormiddleposterior

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16 7- Sternohyoid: O: manubrium I: hyoid bone A: depresses hyoid and larynx 8- Digastric: consists of two bellies that are connected by an intermediate tendon 9- Sternocleidomastoid: O: manubrium and medial portion of clavicle I: mastoid process A: together they flex head forward; separately they rotate head opposite to muscle contracting N: Spinal accessory (CN XI)

17 10- Deltoid: O: lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula I: deltoid tuberosity A: arm abduction N: axillary nerve 11: Pectoralis minor: Thin muscle located underneath pectoralis major O: ribs 3-5 I: coracoid process

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19 12- Pectoralis major O: medial 1/3 of clavicle I: lateral lip of bicipital groove to the crest of the greater tubercle A: arm flexion, rotates arm medially N: lateral and median pectoral nerves 13- Serratus anterior O: ribs 1-8 I: vertebral border of scapula A: protract and hold scapula N: long thoracic nerve 14- Intercostals: accessory muscle to respiration

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21 15- Rectus abdominis: O: pubic symphysis I: xiphoid process and costal cartilage A: flex lumbar spine N: intercostal nerves 16- Diaphragm: O: inferior surface of rib cage I: central tendon A: primary muscle of respiration N: phrenic nerve (C3,4,5)

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25 17- Triceps brachii: O: long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula medial head: posterior humeral shaft lateral head: posterior humeral shaft I: olecranon process of ulna A: forearm extension N: radial nerve 18- Biceps brachii : O: short head: coracoid process long head: supraglenoid tubercle long head: supraglenoid tubercle I: radial tuberosity A: forearm flexor N: musculocutaneous nerve

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28 19- Brachialis: Forearm flexor (lifts ulna) 20- Brachioradialis: “drinking muscle” O: distal end of humerus I: styloid process of radius A: forearm flexor N: radial nerve 21- Flexor carpi radialis: A: wrist flexor N: median nerve

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30 22- Palmaris longus: O: medial epicondyle of humerus I: palmar aponeurosis A: weak wrist flexor N: median nerve Absent in 15% of the population (More females than males) 23- Lumbricals: 4 worm shaped muscles A: flex fingers at MCP joint

31 24- Iliopsoas: combination iliacus and psoas muscle A: primary hip and trunk flexor 25- Pectineus: Short flat muscle that adducts thigh O: pubis I: lesser trochanter 26- Tensor fasciae latae: O: ASIS I: Iliotibial tract (Gerdy’s tubercle) A: thigh abduction

32 27- Sartorius: “tailor’s muscle” O: anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) I: upper medial surface of body of tibia A: Flexes, abducts and laterally rotates thigh N: Obturator nerve 28: Adductor longus Common thigh adductor 29: Gracilis: O: pubis I: tibia A: adducts thigh

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34  Quadriceps:  30: Rectus femoris  O: ASIS  I: patella by way of quadriceps tendon and tibial tuberosity by way of patellar ligament  A: hip flexor and knee extension  N: femoral nerve 31: Vastus lateralis medius knee extension medius knee extension intermedius intermedius

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36 32: Tibialis anterior: O: lateral condyle of tibia I: medial cuneiform and 1 st MTP. A: dorsiflexion of foot N: deep fibular nerve 33: Flexor hallucis longus: flexes great toe “push off” while taking a step

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39 Posterior Posterior 1- Occipitalis: O: occipital bone I: galea aponeurotica A: pulls scalp posteriorly I: facial nerve 2- Trapezius O: Occipital bone, vertebra of cervical and thoracic spinous processes I: acromion, spine of scapula and lateral 1/3 of clavicle A: extends head and raises scapula. “shrugging shoulders” N: Spinal Accessory nerve (CNXI)

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41 Rotator cuff of shoulder: Holds humerus tight to glenoid fossa (S.I.T.S.) 3- Supraspinatus: O: supraspinous fossa of scapula I: greater tubercle of humerus A: assists in abduction 4- Infraspinatus O: infraspinous fossa of scapula I: greater tubercle of humerus A: rotates humerus laterally

42 5- Subscapularis O: subscapular fossa I: lesser tubercle of humerus A: medial rotation of humerus 6- Teres minor: A: Arm adductor

43 7- Teres major: A: posteromedial extension of humerus 8- Rhomboid major and minor O: spinous processes of C7-T1 (minor) I: medial border of scapula A: retract scapula “standing up straight” N: dorsal scapular nerve

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46 9- Erector Spinae: IliocostalisLongissimusSpinalis A: prime muscles for back extension 10- Latissimus dorsi O: Thoracolumbar fascia (aponeurosis) - T6-T12 and L1-L5 and iliac crest I: intertubercular groove of humerus A: arm extension and adductor N: thoracodorsal nerve

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48 11- Extensor carpi ulnaris: Extension of the wrist 12- Extensor carpi radialis Extends and abducts wrist 13- Flexor carpi ulnaris Powerful wrist flexor N: ulnar nerve 14- Extensor digitorum Prime mover of finger extension

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50 15- Gluteus medius A: abducts and medial rotates thigh N: superior gluteal nerve 16- Gluteus maximus O: dorsal ilium, sacrum and coccyx I: gluteal tuberosity of femur A: powerful thigh extender N: inferior gluteal nerve

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52 Hamstrings (crosses knee joint- popliteal) 17- Biceps femoris: O: ischial tuberosity I: head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia A: thigh extension and knee flexion N: Sciatic nerve 18- Semitendinosus: A: extends thigh and knee flexion 19- Semimembranosus A: extends thigh and flexes knee

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55 20- Gastrocnemius O: medial and lateral condyles of femur I: posterior calcaneus (achilles tendon) A: plantar flexes foot (raise up on toes) N: Tibial nerve 21- Soleus A: plantar flexes foot and raise up on toes while seated N: Tibial nerve

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