Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

KINESIOLOGY Scientific Basis of Human Motion, 12 th edition Hamilton, Weimar & Luttgens Presentation Created by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC Humboldt State.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "KINESIOLOGY Scientific Basis of Human Motion, 12 th edition Hamilton, Weimar & Luttgens Presentation Created by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC Humboldt State."— Presentation transcript:

1 KINESIOLOGY Scientific Basis of Human Motion, 12 th edition Hamilton, Weimar & Luttgens Presentation Created by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC Humboldt State University Revised by Hamilton & Weimar KINESIOLOGY Scientific Basis of Human Motion, 12 th edition Hamilton, Weimar & Luttgens Presentation Created by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC Humboldt State University Revised by Hamilton & Weimar Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin

2 Name, locate, & describe the structure & ligamentous reinforcements of the elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand joints. 2. Name & demonstrate the movements possible in these joints. 3. Name & locate muscles & muscle groups, and name their primary actions. 4. Analyze the fundamental movements with respect to joint & muscle actions. 5. Describe common athletic injuries.

3 6-3 Actually 3 joints:  Humeroulnar  Hinge joint  Humeroradial  Gliding joint  Proximal Radioulnar  Pivot joint Fig 6.1

4 6-4  Distal humerus -trochlea & capitulum.  Ulna - semilunar notch:  Coronoid process  Olecranon process  Radial head  Radial notch of ulna Fig 6.1

5 6-5  All 3 joints enveloped in a capsule, lined by synovial membrane.  Strengthened by radial & ulnar collateral ligaments.  Annular ligament encircles the radial head & binds it to ulna. Fig 6.2 & 6.3 Fig 6.4a Movements of the elbow joint

6 6-6 Proximal: previously described. Distal:  Pivot joint  Radius articulates with head of ulna.  Strengthened by:  Volar radioulnar ligament  Dorsal radioulnar ligament Fig 6.1 The radiolunar joints--movements

7 6-7 Location:  Anterior (Elbow): Biceps brachii, brachialis, brachioradialis, pronator teres  Anterior (wrist): Pronator quadratus  Posterior: Triceps brachii, anconeus, supinator

8 6-8 Function:  Flexes and supinates the forearm. Function:  Flexion at the elbow. Fig 6.7 Fig 6.5

9 6-9 Brachioradialis Function:  Contributes to elbow flexion. Pronator Teres Function:  Pronates the forearm, assists in elbow flexion. Pronator Quadratus Function:  Pronation of the forearm. Fig 6.8 Fig 6.9

10 6-10 Triceps Brachii Function:  Powerful extensor of elbow. Supinator Function:  Supination of the forearm. Fig 6.10

11 6-11 Function:  Working with the triceps, extends the forearm. Fig 6.11

12 6-12 Flexion  Biceps brachii, brachioradialis, brachialis  Brachialis active in all conditions.  Biceps brachii most active with supination, least with pronation. Fig 6.6 pronation supination

13 6-13 Extension  Triceps & anconeus, against gravity. Pronation  Pronator teres & pronator quadratus. Supination  Supinator & biceps; Long head more active with greater muscle length, while short head more active with shorter muscle length.

14 6-14 Great mobility due to generous supply of joints:  Radiocarpal (wrist) joint.  Articulation between two rows of carpal bones.  Carpometacarpal joints. Fig 6.12 Trapezoid Trapezium Hamate Capitate Lunate Triquetral Scaphoid

15 6-15  Condyloid joint  4 ligaments  Volar radiocarpal  Dorsal radiocarpal  Ulnar collateral  Radial collateral Fig 6.14 Circumduction: fingertips describe a circle, hand describes a cone. Fig 6.16 Movements of the hand at the wrist

16 6-16  Proximal row of 4 carpal bones articulate with four carpal bones of distal row.  Permits only a slight gliding motion.  However, the gliding adds up to a modified hinge type of movement.  Anterior surface of carpal bones are slightly concave, referred to as the carpal tunnel.

17 6-17  The thumb is a prime example of a saddle joint.  Joints between bases of metacarpal bones are irregular.  All are enclosed in capsules. Fig 6.13

18 6-18 Fig 6.19 AbductionHyperadductionExtension FlexionHyperflexionOpposition

19 6-19  Because of short ligaments in this region, motion in these joint is almost nonexistent.  Limited to slight gliding.  5 th carpometacarpal joint is slightly more mobile.

20 6-20  Joints at bases of four fingers, uniting proximal phalanges with metacarpals.  Condyloid joints  Encased in capsules  Protected by collateral ligaments.  Also a dorsal ligament. Fig 6.17 Fig 6.20  Movements of Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Fingers

21 6-21  Flexion:  volar surface of the thumb approaches base of thumb.  Extension:  return movement from flexion.

22 6-22  Joints between adjacent phalanges of any of the five digits.  All are hinge joints, permit only flexion & extension.  Hyperextension is slight, if present at all.  Each enclosed in a capsule.  Strengthen by collateral ligaments and in front by a volar ligament.

23 6-23 Location: (table 6.1)  Anterior: Flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus.  Posterior: Extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi ulnaris. Location: (table 6.1)  From forearm: Extensor digiti minimi, extensor digitorum, extensor indicis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor digitorum superficialis.  Intrinsic to Hand: Abductor digiti minimi, flexors digiti minimi brevis, interossei dorsales manus, interossei palmaris, lumbricales manus, opponens digiti minimi.

24 6-24 Location: (table 6.1)  From forearm: Abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, flexor pollicis longus.  Intrinsic to hand: Abductor pollicis brevis, adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis.

25 6-25 Extensor carpi radialis (longus) (brevis ) Extensor carpi ulnaris Fig 6.23a Extensor carpi radialis Function:  Extends wrist  Radial deviation Extensor carpi ulnaris Function:  Extends wrist  Ulnar deviation Fig 6.21 Flexor Carpi radialis Function:  Flexes wrist  Radial deviation Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Function:  Flexes wrist  Ulnar deviation Palmaris longus Function:  Weakly flexes wrist

26 6-26 Extensor digitorum Function:  Extends fingers & wrist. Extensor digiti minimi Function:  Extends little finger & wrist. Extensor digitorum Extensor digiti minimi Fig 6.23b Fig 6.24 a Flexor digitorum superficialis Function:  Flexes fingers & wrist.

27 6-27 Fig 6.25 Flexor digitorum profundus Function:  Flexes fingers & wrist. Flexor pollicis longus Function:  Flexes thumb. Fig 6.24b Extensor pollicis longus Function:  Extends thumb Extensor indicis Function:  Extends index finger Abductor pollicis longus Function:  Abducts thumb Extensor pollicis brevis Function:  Extends thumb

28 6-28 Abductor pollicis brevis Function:  Abducts thumb. Flexor pollicis brevis Function:  Flexes thumb. Opponens pollicis Function:  Opposition of thumb. Fig 6.26

29 6-29 Abductor digit minimi Function:  Abducts little finger. Flexor digiti minimi Function:  Flexes little finger. Opponens digiti minimi Function:  Opposition of little finger. Abductor pollicis brevis Function:  Abducts thumb. Flexor pollicis brevis Function:  Flexes thumb. Opponens pollicis Function:  Opposition of thumb. Fig 6.26

30 6-30 Wrist  Flexion  Extension & Hyperextension  Radial deviation (Abduction)  Ulnar Deviation (adduction) Fingers  Flexion  Extension  Abduction  Adduction  Opposition

31 6-31 Thumb Metacarpal  Flexion  Extension  Abduction  Adduction  Opposition Thumb Phalanges  Flexion  Extension

32 6-32  Long finger muscles do not have sufficient length to permit full ROM in joints of fingers & wrist at the same time. Example: make a tight fist, now flex wrist, fingers loosen their grip. Length of Long Finger Muscles Relative to Range of Motion in Wrist & Fingers

33 6-33  Power grip involves flexion of all fingers Fig 6.30 CylindricalSphericalHook

34 6-34  Precision involves thumb & two fingers, depending on shape & size of object Fig 6.30

35 6-35  Result of direct blow or falling on outstretched hand.  Usually both ulna & radius fracture.  In the young usually a greenstick type.  Immobilization of the elbow is important to reduce movement at fracture site.

36 6-36  Results from falling on outstretched hand with elbow extended or hyperextended.  Most common is backward displacement of ulna & radius in relation to humerus.  Dislocation is frequently accompanied by fracture.  Most common is to medial epicondyle.  Very serious - likely to involve blood vessels & nerves.

37 6-37  From falling on palm of hand with wrist hyperextended.  Usually a sprain of ligaments.  May be a strain to tendons.  May be pain, weakness, limited ROM.

38 6-38  This is an overuse, repetitive stress injury.  Long hours working with small hand tools and keyboards.  Nerve & blood vessel compression as they pass through carpal arch & transverse carpal ligament.  Indicators are pain, numbing of fingers.

39 6-39  External force applied to tendon pulls off a piece of bone.  Often from rapid pronation/supination or high energy flexion of fingers.  Probability for occurrence greatest during growth and maturation.

40 6-40 Lateral epicondylitis – “tennis elbow” Medial epicondylitis – ‘Little League elbow”  Both are repetitive stress injuries.  Micro-traumas or tears in muscle & soft tissue at proximal attachments.  Indication is pain on activity.  Rest, ice, anti-inflammatory drugs, bracing often used as treatment.


Download ppt "KINESIOLOGY Scientific Basis of Human Motion, 12 th edition Hamilton, Weimar & Luttgens Presentation Created by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC Humboldt State."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google